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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938853

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 may lead to a large spectrum of respiratory manifestations, including pulmonary sequelae. We conducted a single-center longitudinal study of survivors from severe COVID-19 cases who underwent a chest CT during hospitalization (CTH). Three months after being discharged, these patients were evaluated by a clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and a chest-CT scan (CTFU). Sixty-two patients were enrolled. At follow-up, 27% complained of exertional dyspnoea and 12% of cough. Dyspnoeic patients had a lower forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75 (p = 0.015), while a CT scan (p = 0.016 showed that patients with cough had a higher extent of bronchiectasis. Lung volumes and diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) at follow-up were lower in patients who had been invasively ventilated, which correlated inversely with the length of hospitalization and ground-glass extension at CTH. At follow-up, 14.5% of patients had a complete radiological resolution, while 85.5% presented persistence of ground-glass opacities, and 46.7% showed fibrotic-like alterations. Residual ground-glass at CTFU was related to the length of hospitalization (r = 0.48; p = 0.0002) and to the need for mechanical ventilation or high flow oxygen (p = 0.01) during the acute phase. In conclusion, although patients at three months from discharge showed functional impairment and radiological abnormalities, which correlated with a prolonged hospital stay and need for mechanical ventilation, the persistence of respiratory symptoms was related not to parenchymal but rather to airway sequelae.

2.
Acta Radiol ; : 2841851211055163, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest radiography (CR) patterns for the diagnosis of COVID-19 have been established. However, they were not ideated comparing CR features with those of other pulmonary diseases. PURPOSE: To create the most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern comparing CR findings of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary diseases and to test the model against the British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CR of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pulmonary diseases, admitted to the emergency department, were evaluated. Assessed features were interstitial opacities, ground glass opacities, and/or consolidations and the predominant lung alteration. We also assessed uni-/bilaterality, location (upper/middle/lower), and distribution (peripheral/perihilar), as well as pleural effusion and perihilar vessels blurring. A binary logistic regression was adopted to obtain the most accurate CR COVID-19 pattern, and sensitivity and specificity were computed. The newly defined pattern was compared to BSTI criteria. RESULTS: CR of 274 patients were evaluated (146 COVID-19, 128 non-COVID-19). The most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern consisted of four features: bilateral alterations (Expß=2.8, P=0.002), peripheral distribution of the predominant (Expß=2.3, P=0.013), no pleural effusion (Expß=0.4, P=0.009), and perihilar vessels' contour not blurred (Expß=0.3, P=0.002). The pattern showed 49% sensitivity, 81% specificity, and 64% accuracy, while BSTI criteria showed 51%, 77%, and 63%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bilaterality, peripheral distribution of the predominant lung alteration, no pleural effusion, and perihilar vessels contour not blurred determine the most accurate COVID-19 pneumonia pattern. Lower field involvement, proposed by BSTI criteria, was not a distinctive finding. The BSTI criteria has lower specificity.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480814

ABSTRACT

Pneumothorax (PNX) and pneumomediastinum (PNM) are potential complications of COVID-19, but their influence on patients' outcomes remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of severe COVID-19 complicated with PNX/PNM. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter case-control analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients admitted for respiratory failure in intermediate care units of the Treviso area, Italy, from March 2020 to April 2021. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without PNX/PNM were compared. RESULTS: Among 1213 patients, PNX and/or PNM incidence was 4.5%. Among these, 42% had PNX and PNM, 33.5% only PNX, and 24.5% only PNM. COVID-19 patients with PNX/PNM showed higher in-hospital (p = 0.02) and 90-days mortality (p = 0.048), and longer hospitalization length (p = 0.002) than COVID-19 patients without PNX/PNM. At PNX/PNM occurrence, one-third of subjects was not mechanically ventilated, and the respiratory support was similar to the control group. PNX/PNM occurrence was associated with longer symptom length before hospital admission (p = 0.005) and lower levels of blood lymphocytes (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: PNX/PNM are complications of COVID-19 associated with a worse prognosis in terms of mortality and length of hospitalization. Although they are more frequent in ventilated patients, they can occur in non-ventilated, suggesting that mechanisms other than barotrauma might contribute to their presentation.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 714570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374237

ABSTRACT

The impact that COVID-19 could have on patients with COPD is a real concern. In this study we evaluated, in a cohort of longitudinally followed COPD subjects, the incidence of COVID-19, seeking for possible risk factors and prognostic factors predicting the clinical outcome. In our cohort of 370 patients (followed for 5.3 ± 2.7 years), 22 developed COVID-19 (COPD/COVID-19+) between February/November 2020 (5.9%). Cardio-metabolic conditions (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes) but not respiratory abnormalities (FEV1, DLCO, emphysema and exacerbation history), were risk factors for development of COVID-19 in COPD patients. Out of the 22 COPD/COVID-19+ patients, 10 needed intensive care. Low DLCO and emphysema, but also metabolic comorbidities, were related to the need for intensive care.

5.
Pulmonology ; 28(1): 13-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246146

ABSTRACT

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is used to treat acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) even outside the ICU and the ROX index (pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen/respiratory rate) may predict HFNC failure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was therefore to verify whether the ROX index is an accurate predictor of HFNC failure for COVID-19 patients treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU) and to evaluate the validity of the previously suggested threshold. DESIGN: Multicenter study. Retrospective observational analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: 3 centres specialized in non-invasive respiratory support (Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bolzano and Treviso, Italy). Patients treated outside the ICU were analysed MEASUREMENTS: The variables to calculate the ROX index were collected during the first day of therapy at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then recorded every 24 hours. HFNC failure was defined as escalation of respiratory support to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or death. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 35 (29%) patients failed HFNC and required intubation. ROC analysis identified the 12-hour ROX index as the best predictor of intubation with an AUC of 0.7916[CI 95% 0.6905-0.8927] and the best threshold to be 5.99[Specificity 96% Sensitivity 62%]. In the survival analysis, a ROX value <5.99 was associated with an increased risk of failure (p = 0008 log - rank test). The threshold of 4,9 identified by Roca as the best predictor in non-COVID patients, was not able to discriminate between success and failure (p = 0.4 log-rank test) in our patients. CONCLUSIONS: ROX index may be useful in guiding the clinicians in their decision to intubate patients, especially in patients with moderate ARF, treated therefore outside the ICU. Indeed, it also demonstrates a different threshold value than reported for non-COVID patients, possibly related to the different mechanisms of hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oximetry , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Transplant ; 20(10): 2933-2937, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843550

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared pandemic since March 2020. In Europe, Italy was the first nation affected by this infection. We report anamnestic data, clinical features, and therapeutic management of 2 lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Both patients were in good clinical condition before the infection and were receiving immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Whereas mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn in both cases, CNI were suspended only in the second patient. The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy. He was discharged with a satisfactory pulmonary function and a complete resolution of radiological and clinical findings. However, at discharge SARS-CoV-2 RNA could still be detected in the nasopharyngeal swab and in the stools. The second patient required mechanical ventilation, had a progressive deterioration of his clinical conditions, and had a fatal outcome. Further insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection is eagerly awaited to improve the outcome of transplant recipients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Transplant Recipients , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cystic Fibrosis/surgery , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

8.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(10): 944-948, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of chronic use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the severity of COVID-19 infection is still unclear in patients with hypertension. We aimed to investigate the association between chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and COVID-19-related outcomes in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A single-center study was conducted on 133 consecutive hypertensive subjects presenting to the emergency department with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between 9 and 31 March 2020. RESULTS: All patients were grouped according to their chronic antihypertensive medications (ACEIs, N = 40; ARBs, N = 42; not on RAAS inhibitors, N = 51). There was no statistical difference between ACEIs and ARBs groups in terms of hospital admission rate, oxygen therapy, and need for noninvasive ventilation. Patients chronically treated with RAAS inhibitors showed a significantly lower rate of admission to semi-intensive/intensive care units, when compared with the non-RAAS population (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.09-0.66, P = 0.006). Similarly, the risk of mortality was lower in the former group, although not reaching statistical significance (OR 0.56, CI 95% 0.17-1.83, P = 0.341). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that chronic use of RAAS inhibitors does not negatively affect clinical course of COVID-19 in hypertensive patients. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and determine whether RAAS inhibitors may have a protective effect on COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hypertension/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies
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