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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1607-1612, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614663

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this observational study was to highlight high resolution CT scan characteristics of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) with a focus on the detection of de-novo appeared or evolved bronchiectasis. METHODS: From March 2020 to May 2021, we enrolled 350 consecutive mechanically ventilated ICU patients with COVID-19. Patients with CAPA and at least one chest CT scan performed within 15 days from the diagnosis were included. Two radiologists were asked to identify typical and atypical signs of COVID-19 pneumonia. Bronchiectasis locations were described and a modified Reiff score was calculated, as severity score. A total of 19 CAPA patients (median age 71.0, Interquartile range (IQR) 62.5-75.0; male 16, 84.2%) were included. RESULTS: According to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM criteria, 18 patients had probable CAPA and one had proven CAPA. The median time between hospital admission and CT scan was 21 days (IQR 14.5-25.0). The incidence of bronchiectasis in the study population was 57.9% (n = 11). Tubular bronchiectasis was detected in 10 patients and were scored as follows: three patients had a score of 1, three patients had a score of score 2, one patient had a score of 5 and four patients had a score of 6. Eight patients had a previous CT scan (performed at hospital admission), among them: 5 patients developed de-novo bronchiectasis, while 2 patients demonstrated a volumetric increase of bronchiectasis. At the 6-months follow-up, the mortality rate for patients with CAPA was >60%. CONCLUSION: the radiologic detection of de-novo appearance or volumetric increase of bronchiectasis in COVID-19 should lead clinicians to search for fungal superinfections.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(4): 1053-1060, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572438

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine whether neck circumference predicts mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure. We performed a prospective multicenter (Italy and Brasil) study carried out from March to December 2020 on 440 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure. Baseline neck circumference was measured. The study outcome was 30- and 60-days mortality. Female and male participants were classified as "large neck" when exceeding fourth-quartile. Patients had a median age of 65 years (IQR 54-76), 68% were male. One-quarter of patients presented with grade-1 or higher obesity. The median neck circumference was 40 cm (IQR 38-43): 38 cm (IQR 36-40) for female and 41 cm (IQR 39-44) for male subjects. "Large neck" patients had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (63 vs. 48%), diabetes (33 vs. 19%), obesity (26 vs. 14%), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (98 vs. 88%). The cumulative mortality rate was 13.1% (n = 52) and 15.9% (n = 63) at 30 and 60 days, respectively. After adjusting for age, BMI, relevant comorbidities, and high C-reactive protein to albumin ratio, "large neck" patients showed a significantly increased risk of death at 30- (adjusted HR 2.50; 95% CI 1.18-5.29; p = 0.017) and 60-days (adjusted HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.14-4.46; p = 0.019). Neck circumference is easy to collect and provides additional prognostic information to BMI. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure, those with large neck phenotype had a more than double risk of death at 30 and 60 days.

5.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(1): 75-80, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the variations of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection treated with Tocilizumab (TCZ) alone or in association with hemoadsorption (HA). DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admitting mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. PATIENTS: Four adult patients. INTERVENTIONS: We compared the blood values of IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and of other biochemical variables including the PaO2/FiO2 in two patients who received TCZ alone and in other 2 in whom it was associated with the HA (TCZ-HA) due to the presence of impending or established organ failures other than the lung. All variables were measured before, during and after the treatment. MAIN RESULTS: In all patients, the IL-6 increased during the treatment; after its termination, its values sharply decreased only in those treated also with HA; conversely, the CRP decreased in all patients; the PaO2/FiO2 increased in three patients and remained stable in the remaining one. Both the TCZ and the HA were well tolerated; all patients were weaned from the mechanical ventilation and discharged from the hospital. LIMITATIONS: Although the limited number of patients does not allow to draw firm conclusions, the increase of the IL-6 of can be ascribed to its displacement from cellular and soluble receptors, whereas its decrease is likely due to the scavenging effect exerted by the HA. Although the association TCZ-HA could be valuable in the treatment of the Cytokine Release Storm (CRS) associated with the SARS-CoV-2, the HA could be more effective as it neutralizes a wider panel of inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

7.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(1): e3354, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059440

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 is especially severe for elderly subjects with cardiometabolic and respiratory comorbidities. Neck circumference (NC) has been shown to be strongly related to cardiometabolic and respiratory illnesses even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We performed a prospective study to investigate the potential of NC to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in adult COVID-19 inpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively and consecutively enrolled COVID-19 adult patients admitted to dedicated medical wards of two Italian hospitals from 25 March to 7 April 2020. On admission, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data, including BMI and NC were collected. As primary outcome measure, the maximum respiratory support received was evaluated. Follow-up time was 30 days from hospital admission. RESULTS: We enrolled 132 subjects (55.0-75.8 years, 32% female). During the study period, 26 (19.7%) patients underwent IMV. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and COPD, NC resulted independently and significantly associated with IMV risk (adjusted OR 1.260-per 1 cm increase 95% CI:1.120-1.417; P < .001), with a stronger association in the subgroup with BMI ≤30 Kg/m2 (adjusted OR 1.526; 95% CI:1.243-1.874; P < .001). NC showed a good discrimination power in predicting patients requiring IMV (AUC 0.783; 95% CI:0.684-0.882; P < .001). In particular, NC > 40.5 cm (>37.5 for females and >42.5 for males) showed a higher and earlier IMV risk compared to subjects with lower NC (Log-rank test: P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: NC is an easy to measure parameter able to predict the need for IMV in adult COVID-19 inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neck/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725472

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the peripheral blood cell count "signature" of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to discriminate promptly between COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We designed a retrospective case-control study, enrolling 525 patients (283 COVID-19 and 242 with CAP). All patients had a fever and at least one of the following signs: cough, chest pain, or dyspnea. We excluded patients treated with immunosuppressants, steroids, or affected by diseases known to modify blood cell count. COVID-19 patients showed a significant reduction in white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils) and platelets. We studied these parameters univariately, combined the significant ones in a multivariate model (AUROC 0.86, Nagelkerke PSEUDO-R2 0.5, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value 0.9) and examined its discriminative performance in an internally-randomized validation cohort (AUROC 0.84). The cut-off selected according to Youden's Index (-0.13) showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 72% in the training cohort, and a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 73% in the validation cohort. In addition, we determined the probability of having COVID-19 pneumonia for each Model for possible Early COvid-19 Recognition (MECOR) Score value. In conclusion, our model could provide a simple, rapid, and cheap tool for prompt COVID-19 diagnostic triage in patients with CAP. The actual effectiveness should be evaluated in further, prospective studies also involving COVID-19 patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs.

9.
Nephron ; 144(9): 459-462, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658442

ABSTRACT

The SARS-COV-2-19-associated respiratory involvement is caused by the massive release of inflammatory cytokines ultimately leading to interstitial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the absence of an effective antiviral treatment, a reasonable causal approach could be constituted by the neutralization of these substances. The authors describe the clinical course of a patient with SARS-COV-2-19 interstitial pneumonia treated with the combination of an anti-interleukin 6 (IL-6) agent (tocilizumab) and hemoadsorption (HA). This combination was used to abate the surge of inflammatory mediators leading to the lung damage. Blood levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured before the initiation of the treatment and in the following 3 days. At the end of the treatment, the values of IL-6 and CRP decreased from 1,040 to 415 pg/mL and from 229 to 59 mg/L, respectively. The gas exchanges and the chest imaging rapidly improved, and the patient was extubated 10 days later. The combination of tocilizumab and HA could be valuable in the treatment of SARS-COV-2-19-associated pneumonia and ARDS that are caused by the release of inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sorption Detoxification/methods , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Hemofiltration , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2
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