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1.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935680

ABSTRACT

The impact of secondary infections (SI) on COVID-19 outcome in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) is scarcely documented. To evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SI, we analyzed the microbiologically documented SI in a large multicenter cohort of adult HM patients with COVID-19. Among 1741 HM patients with COVID-19, 134 (7.7%) had 185 SI, with a 1-month cumulative incidence of 5%. Median time between COVID-19 diagnosis and SI was 16 days (IQR: 5-36). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lymphoma/plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) were more frequent diagnoses in SI patients compared to patients without SI (AML: 14.9% vs 7.1%; lymphoma /PCN 71.7% vs 65.3%). Patients with SI were older (median age 70 vs 66 yrs, p=0.002), with more comorbidities (median Charlson Comorbidity Index 5 vs 4, p<0.001), higher frequency of critical COVID-19 (19.5% vs 11.5%, p=0.046), and more frequently not in complete remission (75% vs 64.7% p=0.024). Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage were the main sites of isolation for SI. Etiology of infections was bacterial in 80% (n=148) of cases, mycotic in 9.7% (n=18) and viral in 10.3% (n=19); polymicrobial infections were observed in 24 patients (18%). Escherichia coli represented most of Gram-negative isolates (18.9%), while coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the most frequent among Gram-positive (14.2%). The 30-days mortality of patients with SI was higher when compared to patients without SI (69% vs 15%, p<0.001). The occurrence of SI worsened COVID-19 outcome in HM patients. Timely diagnosis and adequate management should be considered to improve their prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7237, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890247

ABSTRACT

Since neutrophil extracellular traps formation (NET-osis) can be assessed indirectly by treating healthy neutrophils with blood-derived fluids from patients and then measuring the NETs response, we designed a pilot study to convey high-dimensional cytometry of peripheral blood immune cells and cytokines, combined with clinical features, to understand if NET-osis assessment could be included in the immune risk profiling to early prediction of clinical patterns, disease severity, and viral clearance at 28 days in COVID-19 patients. Immune cells composition of peripheral blood, cytokines concentration and in-vitro NETosis were detected in peripheral blood of 41 consecutive COVID-19 inpatients, including 21 mild breakthrough infections compared to 20 healthy donors, matched for sex and age. Major immune dysregulation in peripheral blood in not-vaccinated COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects included: a significant reduction of percentage of unswitched memory B-cells and transitional B-cells; loss of naïve CD3+CD4+CD45RA+ and CD3+CD8+CD45RA+ cells, increase of IL-1ß, IL-17A and IFN-γ. Myeloid compartment was affected as well, due to the increase of classical (CD14++CD16-) and intermediate (CD14++CD16+) monocytes, overexpressing the activation marker CD64, negatively associated to the absolute counts of CD8+ CD45R0+ cells, IFN-γ and IL-6, and expansion of monocytic-like myeloid derived suppressor cells. In not-vaccinated patients who achieved viral clearance by 28 days we found at hospital admission lower absolute counts of effector cells, namely CD8+T cells, CD4+ T-cells and CD4+CD45RO+ T cells. Percentage of in-vitro NET-osis induced by patients' sera and NET-osis density were progressively higher in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients than in mild disease and controls. The percentage of in-vitro induced NET-osis was positively associated to circulating cytokines IL-1ß, IFN-γ and IL-6. In breakthrough COVID-19 infections, characterized by mild clinical course, we observed increased percentage of in-vitro NET-osis, higher CD4+ CD45RO+ and CD8+ CD45RO+ T cells healthy or mild-COVID-19 not-vaccinated patients, reduced by 24 h of treatment with ACE inhibitor ramipril. Taken together our data highlight the role of NETs in orchestrating the complex immune response to SARS-COV-2, that should be considered in a multi-target approach for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical course of COVID-19 depends on several patient-specific risk factors, including immune function, that is largely compromised in cancer patients. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 120 adult consecutive patients (including 34 cases of COVID-19 breakthrough after two full doses of BNT162b2 vaccine) with underlying hematological malignancies and a SARS-CoV-2 infection, in terms of patient's clinical outcome. RESULTS: Among fully vaccinated patients the achievement of viral clearance by day 14 was more frequent than in unvaccinated patients. Increased 30-day mortality was associated with presence of active/progressing disease and absolute monocyte count lower than 400 cells/uL. Results of multivariable analysis in unvaccinated patients showed that the pre-infection absolute count of monocytes less or equal to 400 cells/mmc, active or progressive disease of the underlying hematological malignancy, the COVID-19 severity identified by hospitalization requirement and lack of viral clearance at 14 days were independent predictors of 1-year overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate that absolute monocyte count determined one month before any documented SARS-CoV-2 infection could identify patients affected by hematological neoplasms with increased risk of inferior overall survival.

4.
Blood Adv ; 6(1): 327-338, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622201

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma represents a heterogeneous hematological malignancy (HM), which is characterized by severe immunosuppression. Patients diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the course of HM have been described to have poor outcome, with only few reports specifically addressing lymphoma patients. Here, we investigated the clinical behavior and clinical parameters of a large multicenter cohort of adult patients with different lymphoma subtypes, with the aim of identifying predictors of death. The study included 856 patients, of whom 619 were enrolled prospectively in a 1-year frame and were followed-up for a median of 66 days (range 1-395). Patients were managed as outpatient (not-admitted cohort, n = 388) or required hospitalization (n = 468), and median age was 63 years (range 19-94). Overall, the 30- and 100-days mortality was 13% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11% to 15%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 27%), respectively. Antilymphoma treatment, including anti-CD20 containing regimens, did not impact survival. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma had the more favorable survival, but this was partly related to significantly younger age. The time interval between lymphoma diagnosis and COVID-19 was inversely related to mortality. Multivariable analysis recognized 4 easy-to-use factors (age, gender, lymphocyte, and platelet count) that were associated with risk of death, both in the admitted and in the not-admitted cohort (HR 3.79 and 8.85 for the intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively). Overall, our study shows that patients should not be deprived of the best available treatment of their underlying disease and indicates which patients are at higher risk of death. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/therapy , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
6.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e737-e745, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several small studies on patients with COVID-19 and haematological malignancies are available showing a high mortality in this population. The Italian Hematology Alliance on COVID-19 aimed to collect data from adult patients with haematological malignancies who required hospitalisation for COVID-19. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with diagnosis of a WHO-defined haematological malignancy admitted to 66 Italian hospitals between Feb 25 and May 18, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed and symptomatic COVID-19. Data cutoff for this analysis was June 22, 2020. The primary outcome was mortality and evaluation of potential predictive parameters of mortality. We calculated standardised mortality ratios between observed death in the study cohort and expected death by applying stratum-specific mortality rates of the Italian population with COVID-19 and an Italian cohort of 31 993 patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19 (data up to March 1, 2019). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556, and the prospective part of the study is ongoing. FINDINGS: We enrolled 536 patients with a median follow-up of 20 days (IQR 10-34) at data cutoff, 85 (16%) of whom were managed as outpatients. 440 (98%) of 451 hospitalised patients completed their hospital course (were either discharged alive or died). 198 (37%) of 536 patients died. When compared with the general Italian population with COVID-19, the standardised mortality ratio was 2·04 (95% CI 1·77-2·34) in our whole study cohort and 3·72 (2·86-4·64) in individuals younger than 70 years. When compared with the non-COVID-19 cohort with haematological malignancies, the standardised mortality ratio was 41·3 (38·1-44·9). Older age (hazard ratio 1·03, 95% CI 1·01-1·05); progressive disease status (2·10, 1·41-3·12); diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (3·49, 1·56-7·81), indolent non-Hodgin lymphoma (2·19, 1·07-4·48), aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2·56, 1·34-4·89), or plasma cell neoplasms (2·48, 1·31-4·69), and severe or critical COVID-19 (4·08, 2·73-6·09) were associated with worse overall survival. INTERPRETATION: This study adds to the evidence that patients with haematological malignancies have worse outcomes than both the general population with COVID-19 and patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19. The high mortality among patients with haematological malignancies hospitalised with COVID-19 highlights the need for aggressive infection prevention strategies, at least until effective vaccination or treatment strategies are available. FUNDING: Associazione italiana contro le leucemie, linfomi e mieloma-Varese Onlus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , Italy/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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