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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674736

ABSTRACT

Butyrate is a major gut microbiome metabolite that regulates several defense mechanisms against infectious diseases. Alterations in the gut microbiome, leading to reduced butyrate production, have been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A new butyrate releaser, useful for all the known applications of butyrate, presenting physiochemical characteristics suitable for easy oral administration, (N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), has been recently developed. We investigated the protective action of FBA against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human small intestine and enterocytes. Relevant aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed: infectivity, host functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), neuropilin-1 (NRP1), pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, genes involved in the antiviral response and the activation of Nf-kB nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like) 2 (Nfr2) pathways. We found that FBA positively modulates the crucial aspects of the infection in small intestinal biopsies and human enterocytes, reducing the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1, pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-15, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α, and regulating several genes involved in antiviral pathways. FBA was also able to reduce the number of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, and ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1 expression. Lastly, through the inhibition of Nf-kB and the up-regulation of Nfr2, it was also able to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-15, MCP-1 and TNF-α in human enterocytes. The new butyrate releaser, FBA, exerts a preventive action against SARS-CoV-2 infection. It could be considered as an innovative strategy to limit COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Butyrates/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Enterocytes/drug effects , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
J Funct Foods ; 87: 104787, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607061

ABSTRACT

Fermented foods have been proposed in limiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging evidence suggest the efficacy of cow's milk fermented with the probiotic L. paracasei CBAL74 (FM-CBAL74) in preventing infectious diseases. We evaluated the protective action of FM-CBAL74 against SARS-CoV-2 infection in human enterocytes. Relevant aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed: infectivity, host functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-6, IL-15, IL-1ß, VEGFß, TNF-α, MCP-1, CXCL1). Pre-incubation with FM-CBA L74 reduced the number of infected cells. The expression of ACE2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, VEGFß, IL-15, IL-1ß was downregulated by the pre-treatment with this fermented food. No effect on TMPRSS2, MCP-1, TNF-α and CXCL1 expression was observed. Modulating the crucial aspects of the infection, the fermented food FM-CBAL74 exerts a preventive action against SARS-CoV-2. These evidence could pave the way to innovative nutritional strategy to mitigate the COVID-19.

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