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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 165: 109-115, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568471

ABSTRACT

Evidence of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with COVID-19 is increasing. The evaluation of the subclinical cardiac involvement is crucial for risk stratification at admission, and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) may be useful for this purpose. A total of 87 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID Center were enrolled from December 2020 to April 2021. A complete echocardiography examination was performed within 72 hours from admission. The main outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation by way of orotracheal intubation (OTI) and mortality, and the secondary outcome was the worsening of the respiratory function during hospitalization, interpreted as a decrease of the ratio between the partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) <100. Of 87 patients, 14 had severe disease leading to OTI or death, whereas 24 had a P/F <100. LVGLS was significantly impaired in patients with severe disease. After adjustment for risk factors, by considering LVGLS as continuous variable, the latter remained significantly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (P/F <100) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 1.88, p = 0.001) and OTI/death (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.38, p = 0.012). When using an LVGLS cutoff of -16.1%, LVGLS ≥ -16.1% was independently associated with a higher risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.1, p= 0.008) and OTI/death (HR 7.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 34.1, p = 0.024). LVGLS can detect high-risk patients at the admission, which can help to guide in starting early treatment of the admitted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survival Rate , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
2.
Immunol Rev ; 295 Suppl s1: 4-10, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116789

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is creating serious challenges for health laboratories that seek to identify viral infections as early as possible, optimally at the earliest appearance of symptom. Indeed, there is urgent need to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodologies not only to use in health laboratory environments but also directly in places where humans circulate and spread the virus such as airports, trains, boats, and any public aggregation places. The success of a reliable and sensitive asymptomatic diagnosis relies on the identification and measurement of informative biomarkers from human host and virus in a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive manner. The objective of this article is to describe an innovative multidisciplinary approach to develop an efficient, inexpensive, and easy-to-use portable instrument (bCUBE® by Hyris Ltd) that can be employed as a surveillance system for the emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2. A solution for Coronavirus testing, compliant with CDC guidelines, is scheduled to be released in the next weeks. In addition, we will describe a workflow and path of an integrated multi-omic approach that will lead to host and pathogen biomarker discovery in order to train the instrument to provide reliable results based on a specific biomarker's fingerprint of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mass Screening/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Workflow
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(12): 2975-2989, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary thrombosis is observed in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia. Aim was to investigate whether subpopulations of platelets were programmed to procoagulant and inflammatory activities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pneumonia, without comorbidities predisposing to thromboembolism. Approach and Results: Overall, 37 patients and 28 healthy subjects were studied. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet-derived microvesicles, the expression of P-selectin, and active fibrinogen receptor on platelets were quantified by flow cytometry. The profile of 45 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors released by platelets was defined by immunoassay. The contribution of platelets to coagulation factor activity was selectively measured. Numerous platelet-monocyte (mean±SE, 67.9±4.9%, n=17 versus 19.4±3.0%, n=22; P<0.0001) and platelet-granulocyte conjugates (34.2±4.04% versus 8.6±0.7%; P<0.0001) were detected in patients. Resting patient platelets had similar levels of P-selectin (10.9±2.6%, n=12) to collagen-activated control platelets (8.7±1.5%), which was not further increased by collagen activation on patient platelets (12.4±2.5%, P=nonsignificant). The agonist-stimulated expression of the active fibrinogen receptor was reduced by 60% in patients (P<0.0001 versus controls). Cytokines (IL [interleukin]-1α, IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL, 17, IL-27, IFN [interferon]-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (MCP-1/CCL2 [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1]), and growth factors (VEGF [vascular endothelial growth factor]-A/D) were released in significantly larger amounts upon stimulation of COVID-19 platelets. Platelets contributed to increased fibrinogen, VWF (von Willebrand factor), and factor XII in COVID-19 patients. Patients (28.5±0.7 s, n=32), unlike controls (31.6±0.5 s, n=28; P<0.001), showed accelerated factor XII-dependent coagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Platelets in COVID-19 pneumonia are primed to spread proinflammatory and procoagulant activities in systemic circulation.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Thromboembolism/blood
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