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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536111

ABSTRACT

We report a subtype of immune-mediated encephalitis associated with COVID-19, which closely mimics acute-onset sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A 64-year-old man presented with confusion, aphasia, myoclonus, and a silent interstitial pneumonia. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Cognition and myoclonus rapidly deteriorated, EEG evolved to generalized periodic discharges and brain MRI showed multiple cortical DWI hyperintensities. CSF analysis was normal, except for a positive 14-3-3 protein. RT-QuIC analysis was negative. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in the CSF and serum. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins produced EEG and clinical improvement, with a good neurological outcome at a 6-month follow-up.

2.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; : 103158, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate short and long-term complications due to standard (≤24 hours) and extended (>24 hours) prone position in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted in an Italian general intensive care unit. We enrolled patients on invasive mechanical ventilation and treated with prone positioning. We recorded short term complications from the data chart and long-term complications from the scheduled follow-up visit, three months after intensive care discharge. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were included in the study. Median time for each prone positioning cycle (302 cycles) was equal to 18 (16-32) hours. In 37 (38%) patients at least one cycle of extended pronation was implemented. Patients with at least one pressure sore due to prone position were 38 (40%). Patients with pressure sores showed a statistically significative difference in intensive care length of stay, mechanical ventilation days, numbers of prone position cycles, total time spent in prone position and the use of extended prone position, compared to patients without pressure sores. All lesions were low grade. Cheekbones (18%) and chin (10%) were the most affected sites. Follow-up visit, scheduled three months after intensive care discharge, was possible in 58 patients. All patients were able to have all 12 muscle groups examined using theMedical Research Council scale examination. No patient reported sensory loss or presence of neuropathic pain for upper limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Extended prone position is feasible and might reduce the workload on healthcare workers without significant increase of major prone position related complications.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477539

ABSTRACT

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been successfully applied to patients with COVID-19 to prevent endotracheal intubation. However, experience of CPAP application in pregnant women with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is scarce. This study aimed to describe the natural history and outcome of ARF in a cohort of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, focusing on the feasibility of helmet CPAP (h-CPAP) application and the variables related to ARF worsening. A retrospective, observational study enrolling 41 consecutive pregnant women hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a tertiary care center between March 2020 and March 2021. h-CPAP was applied if arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was inferior to 200 and/or patients had respiratory distress despite adequate oxygen supplementation. Characteristics of patients requiring h-CPAP vs those in room air or oxygen only were compared. Twenty-seven (66%) patients showed hypoxemic ARF requiring oxygen supplementation and h-CPAP was needed in 10 cases (24%). PaO2/FiO2 was significantly improved during h-CPAP application. The device was well-tolerated in all cases with no adverse events. Higher serum C reactive protein and more extensive (≥3 lobes) involvement at chest X-ray upon admission were observed in the h-CPAP group. Assessment of temporal distribution of cases showed a substantially increased rate of CPAP requirement during the third pandemic wave (January-March 2021). In conclusion, h-CPAP was feasible, safe, well-tolerated and improved oxygenation in pregnant women with moderate-to-severe ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Moderate-to-severe ARF was more frequently observed during the third pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tertiary Care Centers , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Oxygen/blood , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Protein C/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(9): 995-1008, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the daily values and trends over time of relevant clinical, ventilatory and laboratory parameters during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and their association with outcome in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective-prospective multicentric study, we enrolled COVID-19 patients admitted to Italian ICUs from February 22 to May 31, 2020. Clinical data were daily recorded. The time course of 18 clinical parameters was evaluated by a polynomial maximum likelihood multilevel linear regression model, while a full joint modeling was fit to study the association with ICU outcome. RESULTS: 1260 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in 24 ICUs were enrolled. 78% were male with a median age of 63 [55-69] years. At ICU admission, the median ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was 122 [89-175] mmHg. 79% of patients underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 34%. Both the daily values and trends of respiratory system compliance, PaO2/FiO2, driving pressure, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, creatinine, C-reactive protein, ferritin, neutrophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and platelets were associated with survival, while for lactate, pH, bilirubin, lymphocyte, and urea only the daily values were associated with survival. The trends of PaO2/FiO2, respiratory system compliance, driving pressure, creatinine, ferritin, and C-reactive protein showed a higher association with survival compared to the daily values. CONCLUSION: Daily values or trends over time of parameters associated with acute organ dysfunction, acid-base derangement, coagulation impairment, or systemic inflammation were associated with patient survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(8): 632-641, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may provide additional and complementary findings for the management of these patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This study addresses the cytological features of the infection and highlights the more influential inflammatory components. The correlation between pathological variables and clinical data is also analyzed. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the cytopathological features of BAL in 20 COVID-19 patients and 20 members of a matched cohort from a critical ICU who had acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by other pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: A comparison of the controls (n = 20) and the COVID-19 patients (n = 20) revealed that the latter had a higher neutrophil count (median, 63.8% of the cell count) with lower percentages of macrophages and lymphocytes. An increase in the expression of CD68-positive, monocytic multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) was reported; megakaryocytes were not detected on CD61 staining. Perls staining showed isolated elements. In situ RNA analysis demonstrated scattered chromogenic signals in type II pneumocytes. An ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing rounded structures measuring 140 nm in diameter (putative viral particles). In COVID-19 patients, the clinicopathological correlation revealed a positive correlation between lactate dehydrogenase values and MGCs (r = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of BAL samples might be implemented as a routine practice for the evaluation of COVID-19 patients in ICUs in the appropriate clinical scenario. Additional studies using a larger sample size of patients who developed COVID-19 during the second wave of the epidemic in the autumn of 2020 are needed to further support our findings.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Chest ; 159(4): 1426-1436, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sigh is a cyclic brief recruitment maneuver: previous physiologic studies showed that its use could be an interesting addition to pressure support ventilation to improve lung elastance, decrease regional heterogeneity, and increase release of surfactant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the clinical application of sigh during pressure support ventilation (PSV) feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter noninferiority randomized clinical trial on adult intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS undergoing PSV. Patients were randomized to the no-sigh group and treated by PSV alone, or to the sigh group, treated by PSV plus sigh (increase in airway pressure to 30 cm H2O for 3 s once per minute) until day 28 or death or successful spontaneous breathing trial. The primary end point of the study was feasibility, assessed as noninferiority (5% tolerance) in the proportion of patients failing assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included safety, physiologic parameters in the first week from randomization, 28-day mortality, and ventilator-free days. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-eight patients (31% women; median age, 65 [54-75] years) were enrolled. In the sigh group, 23% of patients failed to remain on assisted ventilation vs 30% in the no-sigh group (absolute difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%; P = .015 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 12% vs 13% in the sigh vs no-sigh group (P = .852). Oxygenation was improved whereas tidal volume, respiratory rate, and corrected minute ventilation were lower over the first 7 days from randomization in the sigh vs no-sigh group. There was no significant difference in terms of mortality (16% vs 21%; P = .337) and ventilator-free days (22 [7-26] vs 22 [3-25] days; P = .300) for the sigh vs no-sigh group. INTERPRETATION: Among hypoxemic intubated ICU patients, application of sigh was feasible and without increased risk. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03201263; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 128, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the use of prone position in intubated, invasively ventilated patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Aim of this study is to investigate the use and effect of prone position in this population during the first 2020 pandemic wave. METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre, national cohort study conducted between February 24 and June 14, 2020, in 24 Italian Intensive Care Units (ICU) on adult patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission. Information regarding the use of prone position was collected daily. Follow-up for patient outcomes was performed on July 15, 2020. The respiratory effects of the first prone position were studied in a subset of 78 patients. Patients were classified as Oxygen Responders if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased ≥ 20 mmHg during prone position and as Carbon Dioxide Responders if the ventilatory ratio was reduced during prone position. RESULTS: Of 1057 included patients, mild, moderate and severe ARDS was present in 15, 50 and 35% of patients, respectively, and had a resulting mortality of 25, 33 and 41%. Prone position was applied in 61% of the patients. Patients placed prone had a more severe disease and died significantly more (45% vs. 33%, p < 0.001). Overall, prone position induced a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, while no change in respiratory system compliance or ventilatory ratio was observed. Seventy-eight % of the subset of 78 patients were Oxygen Responders. Non-Responders had a more severe respiratory failure and died more often in the ICU (65% vs. 38%, p = 0.047). Forty-seven % of patients were defined as Carbon Dioxide Responders. These patients were older and had more comorbidities; however, no difference in terms of ICU mortality was observed (51% vs. 37%, p = 0.189 for Carbon Dioxide Responders and Non-Responders, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, prone position has been widely adopted to treat mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure. The majority of patients improved their oxygenation during prone position, most likely due to a better ventilation perfusion matching. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04388670.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/standards , Intubation/standards , Patient Positioning/standards , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Supine Position , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa481, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851858

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir has been associated with accelerated recovery of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether it is also beneficial in patients requiring mechanical ventilation is uncertain. Methods: All consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19 were enrolled. Univariate and multivariable Cox models were used to explore the possible association between in-hospital death or hospital discharge, considered competing-risk events, and baseline or treatment-related factors, including the use of remdesivir. The rate of extubation and the number of ventilator-free days were also calculated and compared between treatment groups. Results: One hundred thirteen patients requiring mechanical ventilation were observed for a median of 31 days of follow-up; 32% died, 69% were extubated, and 66% were discharged alive from the hospital. Among 33 treated with remdesivir (RDV), lower mortality (15.2% vs 38.8%) and higher rates of extubation (88% vs 60%), ventilator-free days (median [interquartile range], 11 [0-16] vs 5 [0-14.5]), and hospital discharge (85% vs 59%) were observed. Using multivariable analysis, RDV was significantly associated with hospital discharge (hazard ratio [HR], 2.25; 95% CI, 1.27-3.97; P = .005) and with a nonsignificantly lower mortality (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.26-2.1; P = .560). RDV was also independently associated with extubation (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.19-3.73; P = .011), which was considered a competing risk to death in the ICU in an additional survival model. Conclusions: In our cohort of mechanically ventilated patients, RDV was not associated with a significant reduction of mortality, but it was consistently associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and higher probability of hospital discharge, independent of other risk factors.

13.
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing ; : 102875-102875, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-116501
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