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1.
Carbon N Y ; 194: 34-41, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739589

ABSTRACT

Additive manufacturing has played a crucial role in the COVID-19 global emergency allowing for rapid production of medical devices, indispensable tools for hospitals, or personal protection equipment. However, medical devices, especially in nosocomial environments, represent high touch surfaces prone to viral infection and currently used filaments for 3D printing can't inhibit transmission of virus [1]. Graphene-family materials are capable of reinforcing mechanical, optical and thermal properties of 3D printed constructs. In particular, graphene can adsorb near-infrared light with high efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the addition of graphene nanoplatelets to PLA filaments (PLA-G) allows the creation of 3D-printed devices that can be sterilized by near-infrared light exposure at power density analog to sunlight. This method has been used to kill SARS-CoV-2 viral particles on the surface of 3D printed PLA-G by 3 min of exposure. 3D-printed PLA-G is highly biocompatible and can represent the ideal material for the production of sterilizable personal protective equipment and daily life objects intended for multiple users.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725633

ABSTRACT

: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is rapidly progressing globally, and Italy, as one of the main pandemic hotspots, may provide some hard lessons for other countries. In this paper, we summarize the current organizational capacity and provide a pragmatic and narrative account of strategies and activities implemented by the Department of Prevention (Dipartimento di Prevenzione)-the regional entity of the Local Health Authority of the Italian National Health Service in charge of public health-since the beginning of the outbreak. We conduct a preliminary analysis of general strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of the response strategies from a local perspective. Furthermore, we provide firsthand insights on future directions and priorities to manage this unprecedented pandemic. Our case report gives a qualitative view of the healthcare response, based on the experience of frontline professionals, with the aim to generate hypotheses about factors which may promote or hinder the prevention and management of a pandemic locally. We highlight the importance of a public health approach for responding to COVID-19 and reshaping healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021388, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy and especially Lombardy region was the first European Country hit by the covid 19 pandemic, without a proper preparedness plan. Italy's health-care service is a regionally based National Health Service (NHS) that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. Aim of this paper is to analyse the national and especially the regional strategies put in place to face the pandemic, focusing on the impact of the overlap of the political and health competences among national and regional authority. METHODS: Italian hygiene and preventive medicine society (SITI) realized a questionnaire submitted to National Institute for Health and regional stakeholder to investigate the response to the epidemic analysing the strategies and actions put in place both by the national and regional governments and the regional health authorities. RESULTS: The national survey highlighted several critical points in the management of the covid 19 pandemic in the different regional contexts such as lack of personnel in preventive departments and preparadness. CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learnt during the pandemic should shape the future of the Italian health service. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 144-151, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: one of the most affected European countries by the COVID-19 epidemic is Italy; data show the strong geographical heterogeneity of the epidemic. OBJECTIVES: to propose an analysis strategy to ascertain the non-random nature of the spatial spread of COVID-19 cases infection and identify any territorial aggregations, in order to enhance contact tracing activities in specific areas of the Lazio Region (Central Italy) and a large urban area as Rome. METHODS: all cases of COVID-19 of the Lazio Region notified to the Regional Service for Epidemiology, Surveillance, and Control of Infectious Diseases (Seresmi) with daily updates from the beginning of the epidemic to April 27, 2020 were considered. The analyses were carried out considering two periods (the first from the beginning of the epidemic to April 6 and the second from the beginning of the epidemic to April 27) and two different levels of spatial aggregation: the entire Lazio region excluding the Municipality of Rome, where the 377 municipalities represent the area units, and the Municipality of Rome, where the area units under study are the 155 urban areas (ZUR). The Scan statistic of Kulldorff was used to ascertain the non-random nature of the spatial spread of infected cases and to identify any territorial aggregations of cases of COVID-19 infection, using a retrospective spatial analysis in two overlapping periods. RESULTS: analysis was conducted at regional level in the two survey periods and revealed the presence of 7 localized clusters. In the Municipality of Rome, a single cluster (Historic Centre) was identified in the first period which includes 7 urban areas, while in the second period two distinct clusters (Omo and Farnesina) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Scan statistics are an important surveillance tool for monitoring disease outbreaks during the active phase of the epidemic and a useful contribution to epidemiological surveillance during the COVID-19 epidemic in a specific territory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis , COVID-19/transmission , Cluster Analysis , Geography, Medical , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , Rome/epidemiology , Urban Health
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(30)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690936

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a dishwasher of a restaurant in Rome, Italy, just after the end of the lockdown that was in place to control the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. The case highlights the importance of strict monitoring of water and air systems immediately before reopening business or public sector buildings, and the need to consider Legionella infections among the differential diagnosis of respiratory infections after lockdown due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/urine , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Legionella/isolation & purification , Legionnaires' Disease/diagnosis , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Legionnaires' Disease/drug therapy , Legionnaires' Disease/urine , Male , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/urine , Treatment Outcome
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