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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although most adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 fully recover, a proportion have ongoing symptoms, or post-COVID conditions (PCC), after infection. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the number of US adults with activity-limiting PCC on November 1, 2021. METHODS: We modeled the prevalence of PCC using reported infections occurring from February 1, 2020 - September 30, 2021, and population-based, household survey data on new activity-limiting symptoms ≥1 month following SARS-CoV-2 infection. From these data sources, we estimated the number and proportion of US adults with activity-limiting PCC on November 1, 2021, as 95% uncertainty intervals, stratified by sex and age. Sensitivity analyses adjusted for under-ascertainment of infections and uncertainty about symptom duration. RESULTS: On November 1, 2021, at least 3.0-5.0 million US adults were estimated to have activity-limiting PCC of ≥1 month duration, or 1.2%-1.9% of US adults. Population prevalence was higher in females (1.4%-2.2%) than males. The estimated prevalence after adjusting for under-ascertainment of infections was 1.7%-3.8%. CONCLUSION: Millions of US adults were estimated to have activity-limiting PCC. These estimates can support future efforts to address the impact of PCC on the U.S. population.

2.
Pediatrics ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globally, COVID-19 has affected how children learn. We evaluated the impact of Test to Stay (TTS) on secondary and tertiary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and potential impact on in-person learning in four school districts in the United States from September 13-November 19, 2021. METHODS: Implementation of TTS varied across school districts. Data on index cases, school-based close contacts, TTS participation, and testing results were obtained from four school districts in diverse geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, secondary and tertiary attack risk, and a theoretical estimate of impact on in-person learning were calculated. RESULTS: Fifty-one schools in four school districts reported 374 COVID-19 index cases and 2,520 school-based close contacts eligible for TTS. The proportion participating in TTS ranged from 22%-79%. By district, the secondary attack risk (SAR) and tertiary attack risk (TAR) among TTS participants ranged between 2.2%-11.1% and 0%-17.6%, respectively. Nine clusters were identified among secondary cases and two among tertiary cases. The theoretical maximum number of days of in-person learning saved by using TTS was 976-4,650 days across jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: TTS preserves in-person learning days. Decisions to participate in TTS may have been influenced by ease of access to testing, communication between schools and families, testing logistics, and school resources. TAR determination became more complicated when numbers of close contacts increased. Minimizing exposure through continued implementation of layered prevention strategies is imperative. To ensure adequate resources for implementation of TTS, community transmission levels should be considered.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(29): 925-930, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955143

ABSTRACT

An increase in adverse mental health symptoms occurred in the general population at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which peaked in 2020 and subsequently decreased (1-3). The pandemic exacerbated existing stress and fatigue among public health workers responding to the public health crisis.* During March-April 2021, a survey of state, tribal, local, and territorial (STLT) public health workers found that 52.8% of respondents experienced symptoms of at least one of the following mental health conditions: depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (4); however, more recent estimates of mental health symptoms among this population are limited. To evaluate trends in these conditions from the previous year, the prevalence of symptoms of mental health conditions and suicidal ideation, a convenience sample of STLT public health workers was surveyed during March 14-25, 2022. In total, 26,069 STLT public health workers responded to the survey. Among respondents,† 6,090 (27.7%) reported symptoms of depression, 6,467 (27.9%) anxiety, 6,324 (28.4%) PTSD, and 1,853 (8.1%) suicidal ideation. Although the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and PTSD among public health workers were lower (p<0.001)§ among 2022 survey respondents compared with those of 2021 survey respondents (4), the prevalences of symptoms of suicidal ideation, anxiety, depression, and PTSD remained high among those who worked >60 hours per week (range = 11.3%-45.9%) and those who spent ≥76% of their work time on COVID-19 response activities (range = 9.0%-37.6%). Respondents were less likely to report mental health symptoms if they could take time off (prevalence ratio [PR] range = 0.48-0.55), or if they perceived an increase in mental health resources from their employer (PR range = 0.58-0.84). To support the mental health of public health workers, public health agencies can modify work-related factors, including making organizational changes for emergency responses and facilitating access to mental health resources and services.¶.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
4.
Ann Epidemiol ; 74: 66-74, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between risk factors, mitigating factors, and adverse mental health outcomes among United States public health workers. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey data were collected March to April 2021. The survey was distributed to public health workers who worked in a state, tribal, local, or territorial public health department since March 2020. RESULTS: In total, 26,174 United States state and local public health workers completed the survey. Feeling isolated was a risk factor for anxiety (PR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.74-1.95), depression (PR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.75-1.94), post-traumatic stress disorder (PR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.43-1.57), and suicidal ideation (PR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.82-3.69). The ability to take time off was linked to fewer reported symptoms of anxiety (PR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.83-0.90), depression (PR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.89), post-traumatic stress disorder (PR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.88), and suicidal ideation (PR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, respondents who felt isolated and alone were at an increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes. Findings from this study call for public health organizations to provide their workforce with services and resources to mitigate adverse mental health outcomes.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 384-389, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737449

ABSTRACT

Masks are effective at limiting transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1), but the impact of policies requiring masks in school settings has not been widely evaluated (2-4). During fall 2021, some school districts in Arkansas implemented policies requiring masks for students in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12). To identify any association between mask policies and COVID-19 incidence, weekly school-associated COVID-19 incidence in school districts with full or partial mask requirements was compared with incidence in districts without mask requirements during August 23-October 16, 2021. Three analyses were performed: 1) incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated comparing districts with full mask requirements (universal mask requirement for all students and staff members) or partial mask requirements (e.g., masks required in certain settings, among certain populations, or if specific criteria could not be met) with school districts with no mask requirement; 2) ratios of observed-to-expected numbers of cases, by district were calculated; and 3) incidence in districts that switched from no mask requirement to any mask requirement were compared before and after implementation of the mask policy. Mean weekly district-level attack rates were 92-359 per 100,000 persons in the community* and 137-745 per 100,000 among students and staff members; mean student and staff member vaccination coverage ranged from 13.5% to 18.6%. Multivariable adjusted IRRs, which included adjustment for vaccination coverage, indicated that districts with full mask requirements had 23% lower COVID-19 incidence among students and staff members compared with school districts with no mask requirements. Observed-to-expected ratios for full and partial mask policies were lower than ratios for districts with no mask policy but were slightly higher for districts with partial policies than for those with full mask policies. Among districts that switched from no mask requirement to any mask requirement (full or partial), incidence among students and staff members decreased by 479.7 per 100,000 (p<0.01) upon implementation of the mask policy. In areas with high COVID-19 community levels, masks are an important part of a multicomponent prevention strategy in K-12 settings (5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Masks , Schools , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(48): 1680-1685, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727009

ABSTRACT

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 52.8% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (30.8%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Public Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Work/statistics & numerical data
7.
Int J Stat Med Res ; 11: 1-11, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699235

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a disproportionate burden on racial and ethnic minority groups, but incompleteness in surveillance data limits understanding of disparities. CDC's case-based surveillance system contains case-level information on most COVID-19 cases in the United States. Data analyzed in this paper contain COVID-19 cases with case-level information through September 25, 2020, which represent 70.9% of all COVID-19 cases reported to CDC during the period. Case-level surveillance data are used to investigate COVID-19 disparities by race/ethnicity, sex, and age. However, demographic information on race and ethnicity is missing for a substantial percentage of COVID-19 cases (e.g., 35.8% and 47.2% of cases analyzed were missing race and ethnicity information, respectively). Our goal in this study was to impute missing race and ethnicity to derive more accurate incidence and incidence rate ratio (IRR) estimates for different racial and ethnic groups, and evaluate the results from imputation compared to complete case analysis, which involves removing cases with missing race/ethnicity information from the analysis. Two multiple imputation (MI) models were developed. Model 1 imputes race using six binary race variables, and Model 2 imputes race as a composite multinomial variable. Our evaluation found that compared with complete case analysis, MI reduced biases and improved coverage on incidence and IRR estimates for all race/ethnicity groups, except for the Non-Hispanic Multiple/other group. Our research highlights the importance of supplementing complete case analysis with additional methods of analysis to better describe racial and ethnic disparities. When race and ethnicity data are missing, multiple imputation may provide more accurate incidence and IRR estimates to monitor these disparities in tandem with efforts to improve the collection of race and ethnicity information for pandemic surveillance.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 947-952, 2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290053

ABSTRACT

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 53.0% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (32.0%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Public Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Work/statistics & numerical data
10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 818-824, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257246

ABSTRACT

Disparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether inequities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage with respect to county-level SVI have persisted, overall and by urbanicity. Vaccination coverage was defined as the number of persons aged ≥18 years (adults) who had received ≥1 dose of any Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized COVID-19 vaccine divided by the total adult population in a specified SVI category.† SVI was examined overall and by its four themes (socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, racial/ethnic minority status and language, and housing type and transportation). Counties were categorized into SVI quartiles, in which quartile 1 (Q1) represented the lowest level of vulnerability and quartile 4 (Q4), the highest. Trends in vaccination coverage were assessed by SVI quartile and urbanicity, which was categorized as large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan (areas surrounding large cities, e.g., suburban), medium and small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan counties.§ During December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021, disparities in vaccination coverage by SVI increased, especially in large fringe metropolitan (e.g., suburban) and nonmetropolitan counties. By May 1, 2021, vaccination coverage was lower among adults living in counties with the highest overall SVI; differences were most pronounced in large fringe metropolitan (Q4 coverage = 45.0% versus Q1 coverage = 61.7%) and nonmetropolitan (Q4 = 40.6% versus Q1 = 52.9%) counties. Vaccination coverage disparities were largest for two SVI themes: socioeconomic status (Q4 = 44.3% versus Q1 = 61.0%) and household composition and disability (Q4 = 42.0% versus Q1 = 60.1%). Outreach efforts, including expanding public health messaging tailored to local populations and increasing vaccination access, could help increase vaccination coverage in high-SVI counties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(20): 759-764, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237006

ABSTRACT

Approximately 60 million persons in the United States live in rural counties, representing almost one fifth (19.3%) of the population.* In September 2020, COVID-19 incidence (cases per 100,000 population) in rural counties surpassed that in urban counties (1). Rural communities often have a higher proportion of residents who lack health insurance, live with comorbidities or disabilities, are aged ≥65 years, and have limited access to health care facilities with intensive care capabilities, which places these residents at increased risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality (2,3). To better understand COVID-19 vaccination disparities across the urban-rural continuum, CDC analyzed county-level vaccine administration data among adults aged ≥18 years who received their first dose of either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, or a single dose of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine (Johnson & Johnson) during December 14, 2020-April 10, 2021 in 50 U.S. jurisdictions (49 states and the District of Columbia [DC]). Adult COVID-19 vaccination coverage was lower in rural counties (38.9%) than in urban counties (45.7%) overall and among adults aged 18-64 years (29.1% rural, 37.7% urban), those aged ≥65 years (67.6% rural, 76.1% urban), women (41.7% rural, 48.4% urban), and men (35.3% rural, 41.9% urban). Vaccination coverage varied among jurisdictions: 36 jurisdictions had higher coverage in urban counties, five had higher coverage in rural counties, and five had similar coverage (i.e., within 1%) in urban and rural counties; in four jurisdictions with no rural counties, the urban-rural comparison could not be assessed. A larger proportion of persons in the most rural counties (14.6%) traveled for vaccination to nonadjacent counties (i.e., farther from their county of residence) compared with persons in the most urban counties (10.3%). As availability of COVID-19 vaccines expands, public health practitioners should continue collaborating with health care providers, pharmacies, employers, faith leaders, and other community partners to identify and address barriers to COVID-19 vaccination in rural areas (2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 57: 46-53, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Community mitigation strategies could help reduce COVID-19 incidence, but there are few studies that explore associations nationally and by urbanicity. In a national county-level analysis, we examined the probability of being identified as a county with rapidly increasing COVID-19 incidence (rapid riser identification) during the summer of 2020 by implementation of mitigation policies prior to the summer, overall and by urbanicity. METHODS: We analyzed county-level data on rapid riser identification during June 1-September 30, 2020 and statewide closures and statewide mask mandates starting March 19 (obtained from state government websites). Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation were used to examine differences in the probability of rapid riser identification by implementation of mitigation policies (P-value< .05); associations were adjusted for county population size. RESULTS: Counties in states that closed for 0-59 days were more likely to become a rapid riser county than those that closed for >59 days, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. The probability of becoming a rapid riser county was 43% lower among counties that had statewide mask mandates at reopening (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence intervals = 0.51-0.63); when stratified by urbanicity, associations were more pronounced in nonmetropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the potential value of community mitigation strategies in limiting the COVID-19 spread, especially in nonmetropolitan areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Incidence , Masks , United States/epidemiology
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1535-1541, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890753

ABSTRACT

Poverty, crowded housing, and other community attributes associated with social vulnerability increase a community's risk for adverse health outcomes during and following a public health event (1). CDC uses standard criteria to identify U.S. counties with rapidly increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspot counties) to support health departments in coordinating public health responses (2). County-level data on COVID-19 cases during June 1-July 25, 2020 and from the 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) were analyzed to examine associations between social vulnerability and hotspot detection and to describe incidence after hotspot detection. Areas with greater social vulnerabilities, particularly those related to higher representation of racial and ethnic minority residents (risk ratio [RR] = 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4-6.4), density of housing units per structure (RR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7-3.6), and crowded housing units (i.e., more persons than rooms) (RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8-2.3), were more likely to become hotspots, especially in less urban areas. Among hotspot counties, those with greater social vulnerability had higher COVID-19 incidence during the 14 days after detection (212-234 cases per 100,000 persons for highest SVI quartile versus 35-131 cases per 100,000 persons for other quartiles). Focused public health action at the federal, state, and local levels is needed not only to prevent communities with greater social vulnerability from becoming hotspots but also to decrease persistently high incidence among hotspot counties that are socially vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19 , Crowding , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Poverty , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884956

ABSTRACT

We describe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among US food manufacturing and agriculture workers and provide updated information on meat and poultry processing workers. Among 742 food and agriculture workplaces in 30 states, 8,978 workers had confirmed COVID-19; 55 workers died. Racial and ethnic minority workers could be disproportionately affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Food Industry , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1166-1169, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732630

ABSTRACT

Although non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons account for 0.7% of the U.S. population,* a recent analysis reported that 1.3% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported to CDC with known race and ethnicity were among AI/AN persons (1). To assess the impact of COVID-19 among the AI/AN population, reports of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases during January 22†-July 3, 2020 were analyzed. The analysis was limited to 23 states§ with >70% complete race/ethnicity information and five or more laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases among both AI/AN persons (alone or in combination with other races and ethnicities) and non-Hispanic white (white) persons. Among 424,899 COVID-19 cases reported by these states, 340,059 (80%) had complete race/ethnicity information; among these 340,059 cases, 9,072 (2.7%) occurred among AI/AN persons, and 138,960 (40.9%) among white persons. Among 340,059 cases with complete patient race/ethnicity data, the cumulative incidence among AI/AN persons in these 23 states was 594 per 100,000 AI/AN population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 203-1,740), compared with 169 per 100,000 white population (95% CI = 137-209) (rate ratio [RR] = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.2-10.1). AI/AN persons with COVID-19 were younger (median age = 40 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 26-56 years) than were white persons (median age = 51 years; IQR = 32-67 years). More complete case report data and timely, culturally responsive, and evidence-based public health efforts that leverage the strengths of AI/AN communities are needed to decrease COVID-19 transmission and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alaskan Natives/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Indians, North American/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1127-1132, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725246

ABSTRACT

The geographic areas in the United States most affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have changed over time. On May 7, 2020, CDC, with other federal agencies, began identifying counties with increasing COVID-19 incidence (hotspots) to better understand transmission dynamics and offer targeted support to health departments in affected communities. Data for January 22-July 15, 2020, were analyzed retrospectively (January 22-May 6) and prospectively (May 7-July 15) to detect hotspot counties. No counties met hotspot criteria during January 22-March 7, 2020. During March 8-July 15, 2020, 818 counties met hotspot criteria for ≥1 day; these counties included 80% of the U.S. population. The daily number of counties meeting hotspot criteria peaked in early April, decreased and stabilized during mid-April-early June, then increased again during late June-early July. The percentage of counties in the South and West Census regions* meeting hotspot criteria increased from 10% and 13%, respectively, during March-April to 28% and 22%, respectively, during June-July. Identification of community transmission as a contributing factor increased over time, whereas identification of outbreaks in long-term care facilities, food processing facilities, correctional facilities, or other workplaces as contributing factors decreased. Identification of hotspot counties and understanding how they change over time can help prioritize and target implementation of U.S. public health response activities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , United States/epidemiology
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1122-1126, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725128

ABSTRACT

During January 1, 2020-August 10, 2020, an estimated 5 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reported in the United States.* Published state and national data indicate that persons of color might be more likely to become infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, experience more severe COVID-19-associated illness, including that requiring hospitalization, and have higher risk for death from COVID-19 (1-5). CDC examined county-level disparities in COVID-19 cases among underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in counties identified as hotspots, which are defined using algorithmic thresholds related to the number of new cases and the changes in incidence.† Disparities were defined as difference of ≥5% between the proportion of cases and the proportion of the population or a ratio ≥1.5 for the proportion of cases to the proportion of the population for underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in each county. During June 5-18, 205 counties in 33 states were identified as hotspots; among these counties, race was reported for ≥50% of cumulative cases in 79 (38.5%) counties in 22 states; 96.2% of these counties had disparities in COVID-19 cases in one or more underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) persons were the largest group by population size (3.5 million persons) living in hotspot counties where a disproportionate number of cases among that group was identified, followed by black/African American (black) persons (2 million), American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons (61,000), Asian persons (36,000), and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander (NHPI) persons (31,000). Examining county-level data disaggregated by race/ethnicity can help identify health disparities in COVID-19 cases and inform strategies for preventing and slowing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. More complete race/ethnicity data are needed to fully inform public health decision-making. Addressing the pandemic's disproportionate incidence of COVID-19 in communities of color can reduce the community-wide impact of COVID-19 and improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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