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Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(4): 272-275, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232103


Significant controversy has arisen over the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this prospective, observational study, we evaluated plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) concentration and serum ACE activity in 52 adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 27 non-COVID-19 sick controls. No significant differences were observed in ACE activity in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 sick controls (41.1 [interquartile range (IQR): 23.0-55.2] vs. 42.9 [IQR 13.6-74.2] U/L, p = .649, respectively). Similarly, no differences were observed in ACE concentration in COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID-19 sick controls (108.4 [IQR: 95.8-142.2] vs. 133.8 [IQR: 100.2-173.7] µg/L, p = .059, respectively). Neither ACE activity (p = .751), nor ACE concentration (p = .283) was associated with COVID-19 severity. Moreover, neither ACE activity, nor ACE concentration was correlated with any inflammatory biomarkers.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Prospective Studies
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(3): 599-607, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067439


OBJECTIVES: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a dysregulated immune state. While research has focused on the hyperinflammation, little research has been performed on the compensatory anti-inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory cytokine response to COVID-19, by assessing interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10/lymphocyte count ratio and their association with outcomes. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited. The primary endpoint was maximum COVID-19 severity within 30 days of index ED visit. RESULTS: A total of 52 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. IL-10 and IL-10/lymphocyte count were significantly higher in patients with severe disease (p<0.05), as well as in those who developed severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and new positive bacterial cultures (all p≤0.01). In multivariable analysis, a one-unit increase in IL-10 and IL-10/lymphocyte count were associated with 42% (p=0.031) and 32% (p=0.013) increased odds, respectively, of severe COVID-19. When standardized to a one-unit standard deviations scale, an increase in the IL-10 was a stronger predictor of maximum 30-day severity and severe AKI than increases in IL-6 or IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: The hyperinflammatory response to COVID-19 is accompanied by a simultaneous anti-inflammatory response, which is associated with poor outcomes and may increase the risk of new positive bacterial cultures. IL-10 and IL-10/lymphocyte count at ED presentation were independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Moreover, elevated IL-10 was more strongly associated with outcomes than pro-inflammatory IL-6 or IL-8. The anti-inflammatory response in COVID-19 requires further investigation to enable more precise immunomodulatory therapy against SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis