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1.
Mol Ther ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977919

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vector vaccines have been widely and successfully deployed in response to COVID-19. However, despite inducing potent T cell immunity, improvement of vaccine-specific antibody responses upon homologous boosting is modest compared to other technologies. Here, we describe a system enabling modular decoration of adenovirus capsid surfaces with antigens and demonstrate potent induction of humoral immunity against these displayed antigens. Ligand attachment via a covalent bond was achieved using a protein superglue, DogTag/DogCatcher (similar to SpyTag/SpyCatcher), in a rapid and spontaneous reaction requiring only co-incubation of ligand and vector components. DogTag was inserted into surface-exposed loops in the adenovirus hexon protein to allow attachment of DogCatcher-fused ligands on virus particles. Efficient coverage of the capsid surface was achieved using various ligands, with vector infectivity retained in each case. Capsid decoration shielded particles from vector neutralizing antibodies. In prime-boost regimens, adenovirus vectors decorated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike induced >10-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers compared to an undecorated vector encoding spike. Importantly, decorated vectors achieved equivalent or superior T cell immunogenicity against encoded antigens compared to undecorated vectors. We propose capsid decoration using protein superglues as a novel strategy to improve efficacy and boostability of adenovirus-based vaccines and therapeutics.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327777

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vector vaccines have been widely and successfully deployed in response to COVID-19. However, despite inducing potent T cell immunity, improvement of vaccine-specific antibody responses upon homologous boosting is modest compared to other technologies. Here, we describe a system to enable modular decoration of adenovirus capsid surfaces with protein antigens and demonstrate induction of potent humoral immunity against these displayed antigens. Ligand attachment via a covalent isopeptide bond was achieved in a rapid and spontaneous reaction, requiring simple co-incubation of ligand and vector components. We used a recently described protein superglue, DogTag/DogCatcher, which is similar to the widely used SpyTag/SpyCatcher ligation system but performs better in loop structures. DogTag was inserted into surface-exposed loops in the adenovirus hexon protein to allow attachment of DogCatcher-fused ligands on virus particles. Efficient coverage of the capsid surface was achieved using a variety of ligands and vector infectivity was retained in each case. Capsid decoration shielded particles from anti-adenovirus neutralizing antibodies. In prime-boost regimens, proof-of-concept COVID-19 adenovirus vaccines decorated with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike induced >10-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers compared to an undecorated adenovirus vector encoding spike. Importantly, decorated vectors retained robust T cell immunogenicity to encoded antigens, a key hallmark of adenovirus vector vaccines. We propose capsid decoration via protein superglue-mediated covalent ligation as a novel strategy to improve the efficacy and boostability of adenovirus-based vaccines and therapeutics.

4.
Nature ; 586(7830): 578-582, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691215

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure and are urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here we show that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, which encodes the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. This response was predominantly mediated by type-1 T helper cells, as demonstrated by the profiling of the IgG subclass and the expression of cytokines. Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (using either a prime-only or a prime-boost regimen) induced a balanced humoral and cellular immune response of type-1 and type-2 T helper cells in rhesus macaques. We observed a significantly reduced viral load in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lower respiratory tract tissue of vaccinated rhesus macaques that were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 compared with control animals, and no pneumonia was observed in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. However, there was no difference in nasal shedding between vaccinated and control SARS-CoV-2-infected macaques. Notably, we found no evidence of immune-enhanced disease after viral challenge in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profiles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against symptomatic PCR-positive COVID-19 disease will now be assessed in randomized controlled clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
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