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1.
Medicina Clínica ; 2023.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2181514

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great effect on the management of chronic diseases, by limiting the access to primary care and to diagnostic procedures, causing a decline in the incidence of most diseases. Our aim was to analyze the impact of the pandemic on primary care new diagnoses of respiratory diseases. Methods: Observational retrospective study performed to describe the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of respiratory diseases according to primary care codification. Incidence rate ratio between pre-pandemic and pandemic period was calculated. Results: We found a decrease in the incidence of respiratory conditions (IRR 0.65) during the pandemic period. When we compared the different groups of diseases according to ICD-10, we found a significant decrease in the number of new cases during the pandemic period, except in the case of pulmonary tuberculosis, abscesses or necrosis of the lungs and other respiratory complications (J95). Instead, we found increases in flu and pneumonia (IRR 2.17) and respiratory interstitial diseases (IRR 1.41). Conclusion: There has been a decrease in new diagnosis of most respiratory diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESUMEN Objetivo: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha tenido efecto sobre el seguimiento de las enfermedades crónicas. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en los nuevos diagnósticos respiratorios en atención primaria. Metodología: Estudio observacional retrospectivo realizado para describir el impacto de la COVID-19 sobre la incidencia de diagnósticos respiratoris en atención primaria. Se ha calculado la tasa relativa de incidencia entre el periodo prepandémico y el pandémico. Resultados: Hallamos una reducción en la incidencia de patología respiratoria (IRR 0.65) durante la pandemia. Al comparar los distintos grupos de enfermedades (CIE-10), encontramos una reducción significativa en el número de nuevos casos durante la pandemia, excepto en el caso de tuberculosis pulmonar, abscesos o necrosis pulmonar y otras complicaciones respiratorias. Por otro lado, se detectaron incrementos en nuevos diagnósticos de gripe y neumonía (IRR 2.17) y enfermedades respiratorias intersticiales (IRR 1.41). Conclusión: Se ha producido un descenso en el número de nuevos diagnósticos de la mayoría de enfermedades respiratorias durante la pandemia por COVID-19.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006089

ABSTRACT

The measurement of specific T-cell responses can be a useful tool for COVID-19 diagnostics and clinical management. In this study, we evaluated the IFN-γ T-cell response against the main SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike, nucleocapsid and membrane) in acute and convalescent individuals classified according to severity, and in vaccinated and unvaccinated controls. IgG against spike and nucleocapsid were also measured. Spike antigen triggered the highest number of T-cell responses. Acute patients showed a low percentage of positive responses when compared to convalescent (71.6% vs. 91.7%, respectively), but increased during hospitalization and with severity. Some convalescent patients showed an IFN-γ T-cell response more than 200 days after diagnosis. Only half of the vaccinated individuals displayed an IFN-γ T-cell response after the second dose. IgG response was found in a higher percentage of individuals compared to IFN-γ T-cell responses, and moderate correlations between both responses were seen. However, in some acute COVID-19 patients specific T-cell response was detected, but not IgG production. We found that the chances of an IFN-γ T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2 is low during acute phase, but may increase over time, and that only half of the vaccinated individuals had an IFN-γ T-cell response after the second dose.

3.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(3): 186-190, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a widely use technique in critically ill patients. Nosocomial coinfections are a cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to describe bronchoscopy findings and analyze microbiological profile and probably coinfection through bronchial aspirate (BA) samples in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. METHODS: Retrospective observational study analyzing the BA samples collected from intubated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in a referral Hospital (Spain). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five consecutive BA samples were collected from 75 patients. Ninety (58%) were positive cultures for different microorganisms, 11 (7.1%) were polymicrobial, and 37 (23.7%) contained resistant microorganisms. There was a statistically significant association between increased days of orotracheal intubation and positive BA (18.9 vs. 10.9 d, P<0.01), polymicrobial infection (22.11 vs. 13.54, P<0.01) and isolation of resistant microorganisms (18.88 vs. 10.94, P<0.01). In 88% of the cases a new antibiotic or change in antibiotic treatment was made. CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopy in critically ill patient was safe and could be useful to manage these patients and conduct the microbiological study, that seems to be higher and different than in nonepidemic periods. The longer the intubation period, the greater the probability of coinfection, isolation of resistant microorganisms and polymicrobial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Bronchoscopy/methods , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units
4.
Glob Epidemiol ; 4: 100071, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The changes in shield strategies, treatments, emergence variants, and healthcare pathways might shift the profile and outcome of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in successive waves of the outbreak. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of all patients admitted with COVID-19 in eight university hospitals of Catalonia (North-East Spain) between Feb 28, 2020 and Feb 28, 2021. Using a 7-joinpoint regression analysis, we split admissions into four waves. The main hospital outcomes included 30-day mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). FINDINGS: The analysis included 17,027 subjects admitted during the first wave (6800; 39.9%), summer wave (1807; 10.6%), second wave (3804; 22.3%), and third wave (4616; 27.1%). The highest 30-day mortality rate was reported during the first wave (17%) and decreased afterwards, remaining stable at 13% in the second and third waves (overall 30% reduction); the lowest mortality was reported during the summer wave (8%, 50% reduction). ICU admission became progressively more frequent during successive waves. In Cox regression analysis, the main factors contributing to differences in 30-day mortality were the epidemic wave, followed by gender, age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and neoplasms. INTERPRETATION: Although in-hospital COVID-19 mortality remains high, it decreased substantially after the first wave and is highly dependent of patient's characteristics and ICU availability. Highest mortality reductions occurred during a wave characterized by younger individuals, an increasingly frequent scenario as vaccination campaigns progress. FUNDING: This work did not receive specific funding.

5.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 320, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disposable bronchoscope is an excellent alternative to face the problem of SARS-CoV-2 and other cross infections, but the bronchoscopist's perception of its quality has not been evaluated. METHODS: To evaluate the quality of the Ambu-aScope4 disposable bronchoscope, we carried out a cross-sectional study in 21 Spanish pulmonology services. We use a standardized questionnaire completed by the bronchoscopists at the end of each bronchoscopy. The variables were described with absolute and relative frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion depending on their nature. The existence of learning curves was evaluated by CUSUM analysis. RESULTS: The most frequent indications in 300 included bronchoscopies was bronchial aspiration in 69.3% and the median duration of these was 9.1 min. The route of entry was nasal in 47.2% and oral in 34.1%. The average score for ease of use, image, and aspiration quality was 80/100. All the planned techniques were performed in 94.9% and the bronchoscopist was satisfied in 96.6% of the bronchoscopies. They highlighted the portability and immediacy of the aScope4TM to start the procedure in 99.3%, the possibility of taking and storing images in 99.3%. The CUSUM analysis showed average scores > 70/100 from the first procedure and from the 9th procedure more than 80% of the scores exceeded the 80/100 score. CONCLUSIONS: The aScope4™ scored well for ease of use, imaging, and aspiration. We found a learning curve with excellent scores from the 9th procedure. Bronchoscopists highlighted its portability, immediacy of use and the possibility of taking and storing images.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Bronchoscopes , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Disposable Equipment , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pulmonologists , Clinical Competence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Equipment Design , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Learning Curve , Prospective Studies , Spain
6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(2)2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138811

ABSTRACT

Ruling out pulmonary embolism (PE) can be challenging in a situation of elevated D-dimer values such as in a case of COVID-19 infection. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in D-dimer values of subjects infected with COVID-19 in those with PE and those without and to analyze the predictive value of D-dimer for PE in these subjects based on the day of D-dimer determination. This was an observational, retrospective study, conducted at a tertiary hospital. All subjects with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection requiring hospital admission at our institution between the months of March and April 2020 were included in the study. We compared D-dimer levels in subjects who went on to develop a PE and those who did not. We then created a model to predict the subsequent development of a PE with the current D-dimer levels of the subject. D-dimer levels changed over time from COVID-19 diagnosis, but were always higher in subjects who went on to develop a PE. Regarding the predictive model created, the area under the curve of the ROC analyses of the cross-validation predictions was 0.72. The risk of pulmonary embolism for the same D-dimer levels varied depending on the number of days elapsed since COVID-19 diagnosis and D-dimer determination. To conclude, D-dimer levels were elevated in subjects with a COVID-19 infection, especially in those with PE. D-dimer levels increased during the first 10 days after the diagnosis of the infection and can be used to predict the risk of PE in COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Decision Rules , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Models, Statistical , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
8.
Respir Med ; 169: 106023, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients infected with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study. Patients with severe infection with COVID-19 and suspected PE were included. RESULTS: Patients with higher levels of D-dimer and those requiring intubation were at a higher risk of developing PE. Higher D-dimer levels were associated with a greater probability of PE 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after determining D-dimer levels with an OR of 1.7, 2.0, 2.4 and 2.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, patients infected with COVID-19 requiring OTI with higher levels of D-dimer have an increased risk of developing PE.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
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