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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 193: 110146, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095254

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents (<20 years of age) during the COVID-19 pandemic (3/2020 to 12/2021) in Germany. METHODS: The present study was based on the IQVIA longitudinal prescription database (LRx), All persons (age ≤ 20 years) with new insulin prescriptions from 2016 to 2021 (index date) were selected and stratified by age group. Weekly (age-specific) data were used to forecast the prescription incidence for the pandemic period based on pre-pandemic data and to explore the relationship between weekly reported age-specific COVID-19 incidences and type 1 diabetes incidence and rate ratios of observed vs. predicted diabetes incidence respectively. RESULTS: During the pre-pandemic period, there was a stable higher insulin prescription incidence during the winter period and a lower insulin prescription incidence during summer. During the pandemic period, there was less seasonal variation in incidence related to the finding that the observed incidence during summer in 2002 and 2021 was 44 % and 65 %, higher, respectively, than the expected incidence based on pre-pandemic year. We did not find any cross-correlations between the COVID-19 incidence and the type 1 diabetes incidence for any age group. Likewise, there were no cross-correlations between the COVID-19 incidence and the incidence rate ratios of observed incidences to predicted incidences. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was less seasonal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (defined by new insulin prescriptions), with higher observed than expected incidences during summer. We found no evidence that the increase in type 1 diabetes incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic relates to direct effects of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Germany/epidemiology , Insulin/therapeutic use
3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(6): 587-590, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888919

ABSTRACT

Most studies reported reduced health care use among people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be due to restricted medical services or people avoiding health care services because they fear being infected with COVID-19 in health care facilities. The aim of our study was to analyse hospitalisation and mortality in people with and without diabetes in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic year 2020 compared to 2017-2019. The data were sourced from a German statutory health insurance company covering 3.2 million people. We estimated age-sex standardised rates of mortality, all-cause hospitalisation, hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease (CHD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), and major and minor amputations in people with and without diabetes. We predicted rates for 2020 using Poisson regression based on results from 2017-2019 and compared these with the observed rates.In people with diabetes, the hospitalisation rate for major amputation was significantly increased, while all-cause hospitalisation rate and hospitalisation due to CHD, AMI and DFS were significantly decreased compared to the previous period. Moreover, we found a significantly increased mortality and hospitalisation rate for minor amputation in people without diabetes while all-cause hospitalisation and hospitalisation due to CHD and AMI was significantly lower during the COVID-19 pandemic year 2020.We observed changes in health care utilisation and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to previous years in people with and without diabetes. Concerning diabetes care, the increase of hospitalisations due to amputation in people with diabetes with a simultaneous reduction in DFS needs special attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot , Myocardial Infarction , Amputation , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics
4.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(6): 749-753, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the diagnostic delay and the subsequent quality of care during the Covid-19 pandemic among children with new-onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We compared the HbA1c levels of 3111 children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and of 2825 children at a median follow-up of 4.7 months (interquartile range, 4.1-5.4) together with their daily insulin requirement during the Covid-19 pandemic with the two previous years via multivariable linear regression, using data from the German Diabetes Registry DPV. RESULTS: During the Covid-19 pandemic, HbA1c levels were higher at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (mean estimated difference, 0.33% [95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.43], p < 0.001), but not at follow-up (mean estimated difference, 0.02% [-0.02-0.07]). Children with diabetes onset during the Covid-19 pandemic had a significantly higher daily insulin requirement after initiation of therapy (mean estimated difference, 0.08 U/kg [0.06-0.10], p < 0.001). Both the increase in HbA1c and daily insulin requirement were evident only after the first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This increase in HbA1c at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during the Covid-19 pandemic may indicate a delay in seeking medical care due to the pandemic. However, this did not affect short-term glycemic control. The increased insulin requirement at follow-up could suggest a more rapid autoimmune progression during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Delayed Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pandemics
5.
Diabetes Care ; 45(8): 1762-1771, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany compared with previous years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on data from the multicenter German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry, we analyzed the incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100,000 patient-years in children and adolescents from 1 January 2020 through 30 June 2021. Using Poisson regression models, expected incidences for 2020/21 were estimated based on the data from 2011 to 2019 and compared with observed incidences in 2020/21 by estimating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: From 1 January 2020 to 30 June 2021, 5,162 children and adolescents with new-onset type 1 diabetes in Germany were registered. The observed incidence in 2020/21 was significantly higher than the expected incidence (24.4 [95% CI 23.6-25.2] vs. 21.2 [20.5-21.9]; IRR 1.15 [1.10-1.20]; P < 0.001). IRRs were significantly elevated in June 2020 (IRR 1.43 [1.07-1.90]; P = 0.003), July 2020 (IRR 1.48 [1.12-1.96]; P < 0.001), March 2021 (IRR 1.29 [1.01-1.65]; P = 0.028), and June 2021 (IRR 1.39 [1.04-1.85]; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a delay in the peak incidence of type 1 diabetes by ∼3 months after the peak COVID-19 incidence and also after pandemic containment measures. The underlying causes are yet unknown. However, indirect rather than direct effects of the pandemic are more likely to be the cause.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries
6.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With this study, our aim was to quantify the relative risk (RR) of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during the year 2020 and to assess whether it was associated with the regional incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study based on data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry. The monthly RR for ketoacidosis in 2020 was estimated from observed and expected rates in 3238 children with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Expected rates were derived from data from 2000 to 2019 by using a multivariable logistic trend regression model. The association between the regional incidence of COVID-19 and the rate of ketoacidosis was investigated by applying a log-binomial mixed-effects model to weekly data with Germany divided into 5 regions. RESULTS: The observed versus expected frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis was significantly higher from April to September and in December (mean adjusted RRs, 1.48-1.96). During the first half of 2020, each increase in the regional weekly incidence of COVID-19 by 50 cases or 1 death per 100 000 population was associated with an increase in the RR of diabetic ketoacidosis of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.77; P = .006) and 1.23 (1.14-1.32; P < .001), respectively. This association was no longer evident during the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the local severity of the pandemic rather than health policy measures appear to be the main reason for the increase in diabetic ketoacidosis and thus the delayed use of health care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Models, Statistical , Registries , Risk , Time Factors
7.
Diabetes Care ; 44(7): 1540-1546, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes without evidence of autoimmunity and the respective frequencies of ketoacidosis in children, adolescents, and young adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany compared with the previous decade. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry (DPV), we compared data from 715 children, adolescents, and young adults, newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between 1 March and 30 June 2020, with data from 5,428 children, adolescents, and young adults of the same periods from 2011 to 2019. Adjusted differences and relative risks (RRs) of negative ß-cell autoantibody test results and diabetic ketoacidosis were estimated using multivariable log-binomial regression analysis. An upper noninferiority test (margin 1%) was applied to evaluate whether the autoantibody-negativity rate in 2020 was not higher than that in 2011 to 2019. RESULTS: The estimated frequencies of autoantibody negativity in 2020 and 2011-2019 were 6.6% (95% CI 5.1-8.4) and 7.2% (95% CI 6.5-8.0), respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.68% (90% CI -2.07 to 0.71; P upper noninferiority = 0.023). The increase of the estimated frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar between autoantibody-negative and -positive type 1 diabetes (adjusted RRs 1.28 [95% CI 0.80-2.05] and 1.57 [1.41-1.75], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to a significantly increased number of new cases with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults. In addition, autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes showed no particular susceptibility to ketoacidosis, neither before nor during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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