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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313371

ABSTRACT

Background: Prolonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well-documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with serologic biomarkers remain elusive. Methods: Adult inpatient and outpatient SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to one year after diagnosis;they completed symptom surveys and underwent sampling procedures (blood draw and nasal swab) at each visit. Findings: Our cohort (n=617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. 40% of participants reported at least one symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days, median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for one month or longer was 214 days. Serum anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week of infection was predictive of time to symptom resolution. A prior diagnosis of lung disease was associated with longer time to symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution. More than 90% of participants had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody>1000 AU/mL nine months after diagnosis. Interpretation: Our findings showed that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration. Trial Registration: National clinical trial database NCT04664309.Funding: NIH CTSA grant, U54 NIH Grant, R21 NIEHS, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, the Sunshine Foundation, the Crown Foundation, and the Parker Foundation.Declaration of Interest: Dr. Boyd received support for the current manuscript from Meso Scale Discovery and NIH;418 received consulting fees by Regeneron for expert testimony, has stocks or stock options in 419 AbCellera Biologics;Dr. Chinthrajah reports grants from NIAID, CoFAR, Aimmune, DBV 420 Technologies, Astellas, Regeneron, Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute 421 (MCHRI), and FARE. She is an Advisory Board Member at Alladapt Therapeutics, Novartis, 422 Genentech, Sanofi, Allergenis, and Nutricia;Dr. Manisha Desai received support from Chan 423 Zuckerberg Foundation;Dr. Maecker received grants or contracts from NIH, Bill & Melinda 424 Gates Foundation, Ionis Corporation, Amgen Corporation;Consulting fees from Magarray Corp;425 payment or honoraria from UCLA, UC Davis;leadership or fiduciary role at Cytek SAB;stocks 426 or stock options at BD Biosciences;Dr. Nadeau reports grants from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE);Director of World Allergy Organization (WAO) , Advisor at Cour Pharma, Consultant for Excellergy, Red tree ventures, and Phylaxis, Co-founder of Before Brands, Alladapt, Latitude, and IgGenix;and National Scientific Committee member at Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), and National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical research centers, outside the submitted work;patents include, “Mixed allergen composition and methods for using the same”, “Granulocyte-based methods for detecting and monitoring immune system disorders”, “Methods and Assays for Detecting and Quantifying Pure Subpopulations of White Blood Cells in Immune System Disorders,” and “Methods of isolating allergen-specific antibodies from humans and uses thereof”;Dr. Benjamin Pinsky received grants or contracts for the present manuscript from MesoScale Diagno tics;Dr. Angele Rogers was a Clinical Trials Advisory Board Member for Merck;Dr. Sindher reports support for the present manuscript from the NIH, Regeneron, DBV Technologies, Aimmune, Novartis, CoFAR, FARE, participated on a DSMB for Astra Zeneca, DBV, and received payment or honorarium from FARE;Neera Ahuja, Maja Artandi, Linda Barman, Catherine Blish, Andra Blomkalns, William Collins, MacKenzie Cox, Linda Geng, Xiaolin Jia, Megan Mahoney, Monali Manohar, Ruth O’hara, Rajan Puri, Katharina Roltgen, Laura Vaughan, Samuel Yang, Shu Cao, Iris Chang, Hena Din, Evan Do, Andrea Fernandez, Alexandra Lee, Natasha Purington, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Theo Snow, Daniel Solis, Michelle Verghese, and Yingjie Weng have no conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: This study was reviewed and approved by the Stanford Administrative Panel on Human Subjects in Medical Research.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108828, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363931

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting a cytokine storm that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We developed an in-vitro assay using activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3 + CD28 to examine secretion of cytokines from antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, respectively, in donor patients with a history of COVID-19 (convalescent) and uninfected negative controls. We hypothesized that a novel antioxidant called Tempol may decrease cytokines from activated peripheral blood cells from both COVID-19 patients and normal donors. Preincubation of immune cells with Tempol resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in multiple T cell and APC-derived cytokines from both cells of COVID-19 (n = 7) and uninfected donors (n = 7). These preliminary results suggest that Tempol has strong in-vitro anti-cytokine activity and supports additional studies examining the use of Tempol for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclic N-Oxides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spin Labels , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
3.
JCI Insight ; 5(17)2020 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDElevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with poor outcomes among COVID-19 patients. It is unknown, however, how these levels compare with those observed in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or sepsis due to other causes.METHODSWe used a Luminex assay to determine expression of 76 cytokines from plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and banked plasma samples from ARDS and sepsis patients. Our analysis focused on detecting statistical differences in levels of 6 cytokines associated with cytokine storm (IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α) between patients with moderate COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and ARDS or sepsis.RESULTSFifteen hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 9 of whom were critically ill, were compared with critically ill patients with ARDS (n = 12) or sepsis (n = 16). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α between patients with COVID-19 and critically ill controls with ARDS or sepsis.CONCLUSIONLevels of inflammatory cytokines were not higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in moderate COVID-19 or critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis in this small cohort. Broad use of immunosuppressive therapies in ARDS has failed in numerous Phase 3 studies; use of these therapies in unselected patients with COVID-19 may be unwarranted.FUNDINGFunding was received from NHLBI K23 HL125663 (AJR); The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation OPP1113682 (AJR and CAB); Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases #1016687 NIH/NIAID U19AI057229-16; Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute; and Chan Zuckerberg Biohub (CAB).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/blood , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-18/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Sepsis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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