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1.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(3)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377564

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although substance use disorder (SUD) among older adults is increasing, little has been documented about recent increases in admissions to treatment facilities and associated patient and population characteristics.Methods: We used nationwide data from the Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions to examine annual admissions to SUD treatment facilities between 2000-2001 and 2016-2017 among adults 55 years and older compared to those aged 21 to 54. Analyses addressed the impact on admission rates of increases in the general older adult population and in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of those admitted using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions.Results: From 2000 to 2017, the number of older adults admitted to SUD treatment facilities increased by 203.7% as compared to 13.0% among younger adults. Admissions per 1,000 adults in the general population moderated these differences to 98.4% vs 7.2%. Older adults showed greater increases relative to younger adults in proportions admitted for cocaine/crack (odds ratio [OR], 5.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20-5.51) and cannabis (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.72-1.91) use and a relative decrease in admission for opiates (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) and alcohol (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.78-0.80) along with changes in some demographics. Multivariate analysis showed that the OR for admission among older adults, as compared to younger adults, was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.65-1.80) in 2016-2017 compared to 2000-2001, adjusting for other factors.Conclusions: The number and proportion of older adults admitted to SUD treatment facilities increased substantially from 2000 to 2017 and were associated with changes in both population numbers and patient characteristics, especially a relative increase among older adults in cocaine/crack and cannabis use and a relative decrease for use of alcohol and opioids.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Young Adult
2.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the psychological effects of military service on the children of active-duty personnel have been studied extensively, little is known about the potential effects of military service for children of veterans after service has ended. METHOD: Using nationally representative data from the 2018-2019 National Survey of Children's Health, school-age children of veteran families (n = 4,028) were compared with children of nonveteran families (n = 38,228). Owing to large sample sizes, effect sizes (relative risk and Cohen's d), rather than p values, were used to identify substantial differences in caregiver-reported sociodemographic, clinical, and school performance factors between children and caregivers in families with and without a veteran caregiver. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for socioeconomic factors that could increase health service use. RESULTS: Children of veteran families were more likely to have higher family incomes, health insurance, and married caregivers, but were also reported to have higher rates of clinically recognized externalizing behavioral conditions (attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or conduct disorder) (17.6% vs 12.7%; relative risk 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.66) and adverse childhood experiences; no substantial differences were reported in clinically recognized anxiety or depression. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, children in veteran families were still more likely to be reported to have externalizing problems (odds ratio 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.77). CONCLUSION: After adjustment for socioeconomic advantages that may increase health service use, children of veteran families demonstrate substantially higher rates of clinically recognized externalizing problems. While explanations for this require further study, service systems working with veterans may consider integrating child-focused screening/services.

3.
Am J Addict ; 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A growing number of US states have legalized marijuana use in the past decade. We examined if marijuana legalization is associated with increased marijuana-related admissions to substance use treatment facilities between 2000 and 2017. METHODS: Data from the Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions were used to examine the relationship between marijuana-related admissions among adults aged ≥18 by year and legalization status (i.e., fully legalized, medical use only [partially legalized], and illegal) (N = 35,457,854). Using interaction analyses, we further examined whether certain patient characteristics were associated with residence in states that legalized marijuana use as compared to those in which marijuana remained illegal. RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of marijuana-related admissions in states with legalization decreased by 2.3% from 31.7% in 2000-2005 to 29.4% in 2012-2017 (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.89-0.90) with little difference from states where marijuana use remained illegal, in which marijuana use as any reason for admissions decreased by 0.3% from 39.8% in 2000-2005 to 39.5% in 2012-2017 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99). We did not find any striking patient characteristics (e.g., referral by the police) associated with admissions in states that legalized compared to those that had not. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: While earlier studies suggested that marijuana legalization is associated with increased levels of use, emergency department visits, and traffic fatalities, our findings suggest that marijuana legalization did not increase marijuana-related treatment use in the United States. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to examine the association of marijuana legalization with marijuana-related treatment use.

4.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(2): 663-676, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353267

ABSTRACT

This study examines differences in a nationally representative sample, in proportions of men and women with lifetime diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who achieved diagnostic remission and gender-specific correlates. Data from the 2012-13 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III included 1,997 adults with a lifetime PTSD diagnosis (70.8% female and 29.2% male). Of these 25.3% of women and 24.3% of men experienced remission (ns). Women who remitted were older than other women, more likely to be retired, and less likely to report disability, past homelessness, suicide attempts, criminal history, violent behavior, or parental histories of drug problems or suicide. Men who remitted were less likely than other men to be separated/divorced, disabled, incarcerated after age 15, and reported fewer violent behaviors. Remission was significantly more strongly associated among women than men with greater age, emergency room visits, trauma and less with schizotypal personality. Although women were twice as likely to be diagnosed with PTSD, there were no significant gender differences in the proportions who experienced remission. Remission was associated with diverse sociodemographic and clinical disadvantages among both men and women but only four were statistically significantly different between genders.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109339, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although substance use disorder (SUD) is frequently complicated by pain, the prevalence and correlates of persistent pain and dysfunction following SUD remission have not been studied. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional sample of United States (US) adults with SUD identified in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III, we evaluated the prevalence of moderate/severe pain interference (PI) in subgroups with current and remitted SUD and the independent association of SUD remission and PI with self-reported psychosocial and physical function (Mental Health Composite Score [MCS] and Physical Function Score [PFS] from the Short Form 12). RESULTS: A fifth (20.6%; 7.6 million) of estimated 36.7 million US adults with past year SUD and a slightly higher proportion (25.6%; 9.6 million) of 37.4 million with SUD remission reported PI. MCS and PFS showed independent negative associations with PI among adults with both past year SUD and SUD remission. MCS had a positive independent association with SUD remission, but a stronger negative association with PI. While PFS had no statistically significant association with SUD remission, it had a strong negative association with PI. Analysis of interaction between SUD remission and PI revealed that SUD remission had no effect on the association of PI and MCS but had significant moderating influence on the association between PI and PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe pain interference continues to be a significant problem among a sizable population achieving SUD remission potentially impeding recovery, and deserves focused clinical attention both active SUD and its remission.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Attention , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pain/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States/epidemiology
6.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 17(1): 6, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To address the US opioid epidemic, there is an urgent clinical need to provide persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) with effective medication treatments for OUD (MOUD). Formulations of sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (SL-BUP/NLX) are considered the standard of care for OUD including within the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA). However, poor retention on MOUD undermines its effectiveness. Long-acting injectable monthly buprenorphine (INJ-BUP) (e.g., Sublocade®) has the potential to improve retention and therefore reduce opioid use and overdose. Designing and conducting studies for OUD pose unique challenges. The strategies and solutions to some of these considerations in designing Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) 2014, Buprenorphine for Treating Opioid Use Disorder in Veterans (VA-BRAVE), a randomized, 20-site, clinical effectiveness trial comparing INJ-BUP to SL-BUP/NLX conducted within the VHA may provide valuable guidance for others confronted with similar investigation challenges. METHODS: This 52-week, parallel group, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluates the comparative effectiveness of two current FDA-approved formulations of buprenorphine: (1) daily SL-BUP/NLX vs. (2) monthly (28-day) INJ-BUP for Veterans with moderate to severe OUD (n = 952). The primary outcomes are (1) retention in MOUD and (2) opioid abstinence. Secondary outcomes include measures of other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, medical outcomes including prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B and C as well as social outcomes (housing instability, criminal justice involvement), service utilization and cost-effectiveness. Special considerations in conducting a comparative effectiveness trial with this population and during COVID-19 pandemic were also included. DISCUSSION: The evaluation of the extended-release formulation of buprenorphine compared to the standard sublingual formulation in real-world VHA settings is of paramount importance in addressing the opioid epidemic. The extent to which this new treatment facilitates retention, decreases opioid use, and prevents severe sequelae of OUD has not been studied in any long-term trial to date. Positive findings in this trial could lead to widespread adoption of MOUD, and, if proven superior INJ-BUP, by clinicians throughout the VHA and beyond. This treatment has the potential to reduce opioid use among Veterans, improve medical, psychological, and social outcomes, and save lives at justifiable cost. Trial registration Registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04375033.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Veterans , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Humans , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 699-707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099366

ABSTRACT

Background: Relatively few Americans with current alcohol or drug use disorders receive outpatient or residential treatment. Outreach initiatives at local places of religious worship have been proposed as a way of facilitating such service use, but the number and characteristics of adults who may be reached in this way has not been studied. Methods: Data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults were used to estimate the number of and proportion of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) who attended monthly religious service and did not receive SUD treatment in the past year and used multinomial logistic regression to compare them to three SUD groups who did or did not receive treatment and/or attend religious services. Results: A total of 5,795 respondents representing 35.8 million Americans met criteria for a past-year SUD, of whom 8.3 million (23.1%) attended religious services monthly and did not receive substance use treatment. This more often African-American group had substantially fewer socio-demographic disadvantages (e.g., unemployment), behavioral problem indicators (e.g., police involvement), a higher quality of life score and less likelihood of an illicit drug use diagnosis than those who received treatment and either did or did not attend religious services. Conclusion: Almost one quarter of adults with a SUD attend religious services monthly and do not receive SUD treatment. Although they have fewer adversities than people who receive treatment, outreach to this population may link this substantial group of people to needed services.Highlights/reviewNational survey data suggest 8 of 36 million Americans with substance use diagnoses' (23%) do not receive specialized SUD treatment, but they do attend religious services monthly or more.This group, notably, has less numerous problems, such as unemployment, police involvement, and drug use disorder, and have higher quality of life scores than those who receive treatment for SUD.Outreach and linkage initiatives with religious institutions may facilitate use of services by this population.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(3): 219-231, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044428

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Although suicide attempts remain the strongest risk factor for future suicide, little is known about recent trends in the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide attempts and past-year use of services among adults who attempted suicide. OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual rates of suicide attempts and use of mental health services among US adults from 2008 to 2019. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This US nationally representative cross-sectional study used the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2008 through 2019. Participants included noninstitutionalized US civilians 18 years or older (n = 484 732). The overall annual rates of suicide attempts per 100 000 adults in the general population and national trends from 2008 to 2019 were estimated, with suicide attempts defined as self-reported efforts to kill one's self in the past 12 months. Subgroup analyses were also performed by demographic characteristics and clinical conditions. The trends in past-year use of mental health services among those who reported past-year suicide attempts were then examined. Data were analyzed from October to December 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rate of suicide attempts from 2008 to 2019. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with past-year suicide attempts could account for the change within the study period. RESULTS: Of 484 732 survey participants, most were 35 years or younger (69.8%), women (51.8%), and non-Hispanic White individuals (65.7%). From 2008 to 2019, the weighted unadjusted suicide attempt rate per 100 000 population increased from 481.2 to 563.9 (odds ratio [OR], 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01-1.36]; P = .04) and remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.23 [95% CI, 1.05-1.44]; P = .01). Rates of suicide attempt increased particularly among young adults aged 18 to 25 years (aOR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.52-2.16]; P < .001), women (aOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.62]; P = .005), those who were unemployed (aOR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.58-3.12]; P < .001) or never married (aOR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.31-1.96]; P < .001), and individuals who used substances (aOR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.19-1.75]; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, the temporal trend of increasing suicide attempts remained significant even after controlling for other significant sociodemographic and clinical factors (aOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.16-1.60]; P < .001). Several sociodemographic and clinical subgroups remained independently associated with suicide attempts, especially those with serious psychological distress (aOR, 7.51 [95% CI, 6.49-8.68]; P < .001), major depressive episodes (aOR, 2.90 [95% CI, 2.57-3.27]; P < .001), and alcohol use disorder (aOR, 1.81 [95%CI, 1.61-2.04]; P< .001) as well as individuals who reported being divorced or separated (aOR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.35-2.02]; P < .001) or being unemployed (aOR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.27-1.70]; P< .001) and those who identified as Black (aOR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.24-1.60]; P < .001) or American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (aOR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.26-1.93]; P < .001). Among adults with a suicide attempt, there was no significant change in the likelihood of receiving past-year mental health or substance-related services. During the study period, 34.8% to 45.5% reported needing services but did not receive them, with no significant change from 2008 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although suicide attempts appear to be increasing, use of services among those who attempted suicide has not increased, suggesting a need to expand service accessibility and/or acceptability, as well as population-wide prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Suicide, Attempted , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202100430, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorders affect 30%-50% of single homeless adults, and specialized homelessness service programs enable homeless persons to exit homelessness at rates of about 80%. However, many such adults are treated in substance use disorder treatment programs. This study examined housing outcomes in these programs. METHODS: Data from the Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges database were used to examine housing status at discharge from substance use disorder treatment programs of adults who were homeless at admission. Associations of outcomes with sociodemographic characteristics, treatment programs and processes, and clinical variables were further evaluated with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Odds ratios of ≥1.5 or ≤0.67 were considered meaningful. RESULTS: Of 1,200,105 persons admitted to the programs, 192,838 (16.1%) were homeless at admission; 68.7% remained homeless at discharge, 16.3% were discharged to dependent housing, and only 15.0% were discharged to independent housing. Factors associated with remaining homeless included being age ≥55 years, being unemployed, admission for detoxification (vs. rehabilitation or residential treatment or ambulatory treatment), shorter stays, and program noncompletion. Factors associated with discharge to independent versus dependent housing included employment, admission to nonintensive outpatient treatment, and, unexpectedly, shorter stays. CONCLUSIONS: Most adults experiencing homelessness at admission to substance use disorder treatment programs remained homeless at discharge, and only half of those no longer homeless were independently housed. These outcomes are considerably worse than outcomes typically reported by specialized homelessness service programs. Evidence-based service models that support exit from homelessness could be provided through augmented internal programming or links with specialized programs.

10.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(6): 1123-1134, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The substantial and unexpected increase in "deaths of despair" in the US (e.g., deaths from drug overdose, suicide, and alcohol-related liver diseases) reported by economists Case and Deaton in 2015 raises questions about the number and characteristics of US adults potentially living "lives of despair" with these problems. METHODS: We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III (NESARC-III) to examine population estimates and characteristics of adults with lifetime history of substance use disorder (SUD) and suicide attempt, or either condition alone, as compared to those with neither. RESULTS: An estimated 7.2 million adults had both lifetime SUD and suicide attempt and 78.8 million had either. Those with both faced far more psychosocial adversities, familial adverse experiences and psychiatric disorders compared to those with the other two groups, and reported greater mental health service utilization. Multivariable analysis showed that psychiatric multimorbidity and violence were the strongest correlates of having both conditions as compared to neither while those with either condition fell in between. CONCLUSION: A substantial number of US adults live with a lifetime SUD and suicide attempt with a multiplicity of additional socioeconomic, psychiatric and familial problems. While their utilization of mental health care service exceeds those with either or neither conditions, quality of life remained much poorer, suggesting that mental health treatment alone may not be enough to mitigate their sufferings, and a combination of both social policy support and quality mental health care may be needed.


Subject(s)
Alcohol-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted , Vulnerable Populations
11.
Psychol Serv ; 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968125

ABSTRACT

To address the ongoing opioid epidemic, there has been an increased focus on the treatment and evaluation of opioid use disorder (OUD). OUD and chronic pain (CP) frequently co-occur; however, little is known about the additional comorbidities that present when they occur together as compared to when either condition presents alone. Using data from Fiscal Year 2012 Veteran's Health Administration, all veterans diagnosed with both OUD + CP were compared to those diagnosed with OUD or CP alone on socioenvironmental characteristics, medical and mental health diagnoses, and Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical service use. Veterans with OUD + CP (n = 33,166), compared to those with OUD only (n = 12,517), had higher numbers of medical conditions. Compared to those with CP only (n = 2,015,368), veterans with OUD + CP had higher rates of homelessness and substance use diagnoses. Most mental health diagnoses, numbers of psychotropic medication fills, opioid prescriptions, and use of all other services were higher in the OUD + CP group than in either single disorder group. Multinomial regression analysis revealed stronger effects for medical disorders and medical-surgical outpatient service use in the comparison of OUD + CP with OUD only and stronger effects for substance use and mental health disorders and use of prescription opiates in the comparison with CP only. These findings suggest that concurrent OUD + CP imposes exceptional disease and clinical service burdens that likely require the development of simultaneous, integrated approaches to treatment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Am J Addict ; 31(1): 69-79, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parental substance use disorder (SUD) increases the risk for childhood adversities. Lifetime and current SUDs are associated with functional impairment and psychiatric comorbidity. Research shows that these abate with diagnostic remission. However, a hierarchically ordered heuristic profile of adult subpopulations affected by SUDs has not been explored. METHODS: We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III (NESARC-III; N = 36,309) to compare four subpopulations defined by the following hierarchy: (1) neither parental nor lifetime SUD (un-affected group); (2) parental SUD but no personal SUD; (3) past but not current SUD (diagnostic remission); and (4) current SUD. We conducted bivariate comparisons and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to identify characteristics independently differentiating each group. RESULTS: Almost half of the US adult population (108.9 million) were at risk from SUDs. Relative to the unaffected group (56.1%), the parental-exposure-only group (13.9%) experienced diverse parental and childhood adversities and increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Compared to the parental-exposure-only group those in the remitted group (14.1%) were more likely to report behavioral problems and lifetime psychiatric multimorbidities. Those with current SUD (15.9%) had a poorer mental health-related quality of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This heuristic SUD hierarchy is associated with increasing adversities affecting almost half the US population, although only 15.9% meet the criteria for a current disorder. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide a rigorous population-based estimate of the staggering public health impact of SUDs in the United States and suggest that almost half of the US population is either directly or indirectly affected by SUDs.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Child , Comorbidity , Health Status , Humans , Parents , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 136: 108659, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785084

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown racial/ethnic minorities to have similar risk of developing substance use disorders (SUDs) as Whites. However, few studies have compared the likelihood of diagnostic remission (i.e., no longer meeting criteria for current SUDs). METHODS: Using nationally representative survey data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), we examined all adults with lifetime SUDs; compared the proportions experiencing diagnostic remission; and used logistic regression analyses to compare Black, Hispanic, and other racial/ethnic minorities to Whites. The research team initially used bivariate comparisons to identify potentially confounding factors also associated with remission. The study used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses to adjust for these potentially confounding covariates. The team conducted separate analyses for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUDs). RESULTS: Of 10,916 individuals with lifetime SUDs, 5120 no longer met criteria for an SUD in the past year (55.2% of White, 34.0% of Black, 38.5% Hispanic, and 40.1% of other individuals). In unadjusted analyses, Black, Hispanic, and others were significantly and about half as likely as Whites to have remitted with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.42 (95% CI 0.36-0.48), 0.51 (0.45-0.58), and 0.55 (0.45-0.65), respectively. The study found similar results for both AUD and DUDs. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors only modestly improved the likelihood of remission among racial/ethnic minorities compared to White individuals. CONCLUSION: Minority race/ethnicity is robustly associated with reduced likelihood of diagnostic remission from SUDs even after adjusting for other factors. This study could identify only partial moderators of these disparities; these moderators deserve further study.


Subject(s)
Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Humans , Race Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Addict Dis ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in access to psychiatric treatment are well documented, but less is known about disparities in use of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. OBJECTIVES: To compare Black and White individuals with SUDs on overall differences and correlates of SUD treatment receipt. METHODS: Using nationally representative survey data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), we compared Black (n = 1,312 unweighted) and White (n = 3,076 unweighted) adults with past-year SUDs on proportions who received SUD treatment and on sociodemographic and clinical correlates of receiving treatment. Due to large samples, effect sizes, rather than p-values, were used to identify substantial differences between racial groups. Multivariate analyses were used to identify independent differentiating factors. RESULTS: Black individuals with past-year SUDs were no less likely to receive treatment than White individuals (10.1% versus 11.3%; p = 0.24). Bivariate analyses demonstrated similar correlates of treatment receipt between racial groups, including sociodemographic disadvantage, racial discrimination, criminal justice involvement, low social support, multimorbidity of SUDs and psychiatric disorders, and prior SUD treatment. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that low income, unemployment, and criminal justice involvement had a significantly stronger association with receiving treatment for Whites, while parental problems with alcohol was more strongly associated with treatment among Black individuals (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Recognizing methodological limitations, our findings are encouraging suggesting that Black individuals with SUDs are not less likely than White individuals to receive treatment and have few differences in correlates of receiving treatment. However, treatment receipt was low for both groups and remains a major unmet challenge.

15.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590245

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Existing literature on the epidemiology of psychiatric and substance use disorders and service use among African Americans in the USA has not fully addressed the heterogeneity of Black populations. This study compares the proportions and diverse characteristics of these sub-populations, their mental and substance use diagnoses, and related service use. METHODS: The data for this study was obtained from the restricted version of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III (NESARC-III). Participants who identified as Black/African Americans were categorized into four groups: African-born, Caribbean-born, US-born with at least one immigrant parent, and US-born with both parents born in the USA. Effect sizes were used to evaluate bivariate between-group differences and multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that independently differentiated each of the first three groups from the reference group termed US-born. RESULTS: This exploratory analysis strengthened the notion of the immigrant paradox as African- and Caribbean-born Black individuals scored significantly higher on all measures of quality of life and had fewer mental health and substance use diagnoses, but this advantage was not observed in the children of immigrants born in the USA. There were few significant differences in service use across the groups after adjusting for clinical characteristics. CONCLUSION: The differences observed in the diverse Black populations of the USA, across measures of mental and physical health, and substance use, deserve attention in future research, policy, and program development.

16.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453553

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High rates of psychiatric disorders in correctional facilities have fueled widespread concern about the "criminalization of mental illness." While the link between incarceration, substance abuse, and antisocial-personality disorder is well established, the relationship between non-substance-related psychiatric disorders and incarceration has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the association of mental illness, excluding substance use disorders, with risk for incarceration in US adults. METHODS: Nationally representative data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were used to compare the proportions of respondents with lifetime incarceration among those with no lifetime history of DSM-5 disorders, or with lifetime history of mental illness, substance use disorders, dual diagnosis, and antisocial personality/conduct disorder. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the independent association of incarceration with mental illness alone, both in comparison to and net of associations with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Among adults with mental illness alone, 6.7% reported past incarceration, compared to 4.8% with no history of DSM-5 disorders, and 20-40% in other DSM-5 diagnostic groups. Sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors were more strongly associated with incarceration (c-statistics = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), than mental illness (c-statistic = 0.56). Schizophrenia or other psychoses and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with incarceration, but with effect sizes no greater than eight other sociodemographic or behavioral risk factors. CONCLUSION: A weak association of mental illness alone with incarceration was found, despite high level of public attention to "criminalization of mental illness."

17.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(3): 339-342, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the proportion of U.S. mental health facilities that provide non-English language services. METHODS: Using data from the 2018 National Mental Health Services Survey, the authors examined differences between mental health facilities that provided non-English language services and those that did not across 23 organizational characteristics. Further analyses compared facilities by their method of language service provision. RESULTS: Of 7,503 facilities, 5,186 (69.1%) provided non-English language services. These facilities were more likely than others to have high patient volume, be publicly owned, and be located in the 10 states with the highest percentage of residents with limited English proficiency. Among facilities with language services, 592 (11.4%) relied on multilingual staff, 2,532 (48.8%) relied on external on-call interpreters, and 2,062 (39.8%) relied on both. CONCLUSIONS: Most mental health facilities provide non-English language services, and those that do tend to be large public organizations located in areas of greatest need.


Subject(s)
Language , Mental Health Services , Communication Barriers , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans
18.
J Addict Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies report that women with opioid use disorder experience more comorbid psychiatric disorders and behavioral health burdens than men. We broadened the study of this phenomenon to alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs) using national epidemiologic data. METHODS: Data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave-III identified 2491 women and 3317 men with DSM-5 AUD or SUDs, and 30,501 men and women without such disorders. Women and men with AUD and SUDs were compared to those without such disorders on 22 measures of DSM-5 psychiatric disorders and behavioral histories (eg, incarceration and suicide attempt). The interaction of female sex and AUD in relation to these measures was evaluated and we repeated analyses for SUDs. RESULTS: Separate analyses of female and male adults with and without AUD or SUDs showed AUD and SUDs in both sexes were strongly associated with psychiatric disorders and behavioral histories. In pooled analyses, the interaction of female sex and AUD showed women with AUD had significantly greater likelihood than men of: borderline personality disorder, pain; parental history of incarceration; traumatic events; incarceration; and lifetime homelessness (P < 0.05 for all), but not for psychiatric diagnoses. Interaction of female sex with SUDs showed women had increased likelihood of all personality disorders, traumatic events, and past incarceration (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Certain personality disorders and behavioral histories, but not psychiatric diagnoses, may play a distinct role in leading to SUDs among women when compared to men.

20.
J Addict Med ; 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The associations of current and remitted cannabis use disorder (CUD) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and employment have not been studied, and we aim to address these gaps. METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC III) surveyed a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian US adults (≥18 years) (n = 36,309 unweighted). Using DSM-5 criteria, adults with current CUD were compared with those with CUD in remission and no history of CUD on standard measures of the mental and physical component scores of HRQOL and of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) along with employment in the past 12 months. Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses were used to adjust for and examine the role of covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 2.5% of the study sample, representing 6.0 million adults nationwide, met criteria for current CUD, and 3.7%, representing 8.8 million adults, met the criteria for CUD in remission. Adults with current or past CUD had lower mental HRQOL and QALYs, as compared to adults who never had CUD. However, these differences were no longer significant when adjusted for behavioral co-morbidities and personal histories. Current CUD was associated with lower odds of being employed (Adjusted odds ratio AOR = 0.76; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.60-0.96), but CUD in remission with a greater likelihood of employment (Adjusted odds ratio = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.23-1.91), both as compared to those never experiencing CUD. CONCLUSIONS: Both current CUD and past CUD are adversely associated with HRQOL and current CUD with not being employed; Since CUD associations are not independent of comorbidities, treatment must take a wide-ranging approach.

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