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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226531, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990382

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about changes in obstetric outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To assess whether obstetric outcomes and pregnancy-related complications changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pregnant patients receiving care at 463 US hospitals whose information appeared in the PINC AI Healthcare Database. The relative differences in birth outcomes, pregnancy-related complications, and length of stay (LOS) during the pandemic period (March 1, 2020, to April 31, 2021) were compared with the prepandemic period (January 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020) using logistic and Poisson models, adjusting for patients' characteristics, and comorbidities and with month and hospital fixed effects. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 3 primary outcomes were the relative change in preterm vs term births, mortality outcomes, and mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included the relative change in pregnancy-related complications and LOS. Results: There were 849 544 and 805 324 pregnant patients in the prepandemic and COVID-19 pandemic periods, respectively, and there were no significant differences in patient characteristics between periods, including age (≥35 years: 153 606 [18.1%] vs 148 274 [18.4%]), race and ethnicity (eg, Hispanic patients: 145 475 [47.1%] vs 143 905 [17.9%]; White patients: 456 014 [53.7%] vs 433 668 [53.9%]), insurance type (Medicaid: 366 233 [43.1%] vs 346 331 [43.0%]), and comorbidities (all standardized mean differences <0.10). There was a 5.2% decrease in live births during the pandemic. Maternal death during delivery hospitalization increased from 5.17 to 8.69 deaths per 100 000 pregnant patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.58). There were minimal changes in mode of delivery (vaginal: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.996-1.02; primary cesarean: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; vaginal birth after cesarean: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00; repeated cesarean: OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97). LOS during delivery hospitalization decreased by 7% (rate ratio, 0.931; 95% CI, 0.928-0.933). Lastly, the adjusted odds of gestational hypertension (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11), obstetric hemorrhage (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10), preeclampsia (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), and preexisting chronic hypertension (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.09) increased. No significant changes in preexisting racial and ethnic disparities were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were increased odds of maternal death during delivery hospitalization, cardiovascular disorders, and obstetric hemorrhage. Further efforts are needed to ensure risks potentially associated with the COVID-19 pandemic do not persist beyond the current state of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Death , Pregnancy Complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Term Birth , United States/epidemiology
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac278, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948426

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective observational study in a US national sample of 501 671 adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019, adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased from 12% in February 2021 to 9% in April 2021. However, adjusted in-hospital mortality increased to 16% in September and October 2021. Adjusted intensive care unit admission fluctuated between 20% and 27% in 2021.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2238-2242, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922207

ABSTRACT

After an initial decline from April through June 2020 (from 22.2% to 11.9%), adjusted in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients peaked twice and was significantly higher than June 2020 for subsequent months except in July and October 2020. Adjusted mortality trends differed across age groups between November 2020 and February 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inpatients , United States/epidemiology
4.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898035

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective observational study in US national sample of 501,671 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased from 12% in February 2021 to 9% in April 2021. However, adjusted in-hospital mortality increased to 16% in September and October 2021. Adjusted ICU admission fluctuated between 20-27% in 2021.

5.
Am J Med Sci ; 364(4): 444-453, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia (HK) may be associated with poor clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of HK and evaluate the associations between HK and in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of hospital stay (LOS), and hospitalization cost among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large hospital discharge database (PINC AI Healthcare Database) for COVID-19 inpatients discharged between April 1 and August 31, 2020. HK was defined with discharge diagnosis and potassium binder use. RESULTS: Of 192,182 COVID-19 inpatients, 12% (n = 22,702) had HK. HK patients were more likely to be older (median age 67 vs 63 years), male (63% vs 50%), black (30% vs 22%), and have a history of chronic kidney disease (45% vs 16%) or diabetes mellitus (55% vs 35%) than non-HK patients (all p<.001). A significantly higher proportion of patients with HK had in-hospital mortality (42% vs 11%, p<.001) than those without HK; this was persistent after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.62-1.77). Patients with HK were also more likely to be admitted to ICU (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09), incur higher cost of care (adjusted mean difference $5,389) and have longer LOS (adjusted mean difference 1.3 days) than non-HK patients. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of HK was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality, LOS, and cost of care among COVID-19 inpatients. Detecting and closely monitoring HK are recommended to improve clinical outcomes and reduce LOS and healthcare cost among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperkalemia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperkalemia/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Potassium , Retrospective Studies
6.
Value Health ; 25(5): 751-760, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe cases of COVID-19 have overwhelmed hospital systems across the nation. This study aimed to describe the healthcare resource utilization of patients with COVID-19 from hospital visit to 30 days after discharge for inpatients and hospital-based outpatients in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Premier Healthcare Database COVID-19 Special Release, a large geographically diverse all-payer hospital administrative database. Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) were identified by their first, or "index," visit between April 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021, with a principal or secondary discharge diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 1 454 780 adult patients with COVID-19, 33% (n = 481 216) were inpatients and 67% (n = 973 564) were outpatients. Among inpatients, mean age was 64.4 years and comorbidities were common. Most patients (80%) originated from home, 10% from another acute care facility, and 95% were admitted through the emergency department. Of these patients, 23% (n = 108 120) were admitted to intensive care unit and 14% (n = 66 706) died during index hospitalization; 44% were discharged home, 15% to nursing or rehabilitation facility, and 12% to home health. Among outpatients, mean age was 48.8 years, 44% were male, and 60% were emergency department outpatients (n = 586 537). During index outpatient visit, 79% were sent home but 10% had another outpatient visit and 4% were hospitalized within 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with high level of healthcare resource utilization and in-hospital mortality. More than one-third of inpatients required post hospital healthcare services. Such information may help healthcare providers better allocate resources for patients with COVID-19 during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
7.
JAMA health forum ; 2(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679215

ABSTRACT

Key Points Question To what extent did the COVID-19 pandemic reduce access to surgical care, and were racial and ethnic minority groups more likely to have reduced access to surgical care? Findings In this cohort study of more than 13 million inpatient and outpatient surgical encounters in 767 US hospitals in a hospital administrative database, surgical use was 13% lower in 2020 compared with 2019, with the greatest decrease concentrated in elective surgical procedures. While Black and Hispanic patients experienced a reduction in surgical encounters, White patients experienced the greatest reduction in surgical encounters. Meaning Despite severe and persistent disruptions to health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic, racial and ethnic minority groups did not experience a disproportionate decrease in access to surgical care. Importance The extent of the disruption to surgical care during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been empirically characterized on a national level. Objective To characterize the use of surgical care across cohorts of surgical urgency during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess for racial and ethnic disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a retrospective observational study using the geographically diverse, all payer data from 767 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database. Procedures were categorized into 4 cohorts of surgical urgency (elective, nonelective, emergency, and trauma). A generalized linear regression model with hospital-fixed effects assessed the relative monthly within-hospital reduction in surgical encounters in 2020 compared with 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Outcomes were the monthly relative reduction in overall surgical encounters and across surgical urgency cohorts and race and ethnicity. Results The sample included 13 175 087 inpatient and outpatient surgical encounters. There was a 12.6% relative reduction in surgical use in 2020 compared to 2019. Across all surgical cohorts, the most prominent decreases in encounters occurred during Spring 2020 . For example, elective encounters began falling in March, reached a trough in April, and subsequently recovered but never to prepandemic levels (March: −26.8%;95% CI, −29.6% to −23.9%;April: −74.6%;95% CI, −75.5% to −73.5%;December: −13.3%;95% CI, −16.6%, −9.8%). Across all operative surgical urgency cohorts, White patients had the largest relative reduction in encounters. Conclusions and Relevance As shown by this cohort study, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in large disruptions to surgical care across all categories of operative urgency, especially elective procedures. Racial and ethnic minority groups experienced less of a disruption to surgical care than White patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the decreased surgical use among White patients was owing to patient discretion and to document whether demand for surgical care will rebound to baseline levels. This cohort study examines the use of surgical care across cohorts of surgical urgency during the COVID-19 pandemic and assesses whether there are racial or ethnic disparities in care.

8.
JAMA Health Forum ; 2(12): e214214, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598802

ABSTRACT

Importance: The extent of the disruption to surgical care during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been empirically characterized on a national level. Objective: To characterize the use of surgical care across cohorts of surgical urgency during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess for racial and ethnic disparities. Design Setting and Participants: This was a retrospective observational study using the geographically diverse, all payer data from 767 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database. Procedures were categorized into 4 cohorts of surgical urgency (elective, nonelective, emergency, and trauma). A generalized linear regression model with hospital-fixed effects assessed the relative monthly within-hospital reduction in surgical encounters in 2020 compared with 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were the monthly relative reduction in overall surgical encounters and across surgical urgency cohorts and race and ethnicity. Results: The sample included 13 175 087 inpatient and outpatient surgical encounters. There was a 12.6% relative reduction in surgical use in 2020 compared to 2019. Across all surgical cohorts, the most prominent decreases in encounters occurred during Spring 2020 . For example, elective encounters began falling in March, reached a trough in April, and subsequently recovered but never to prepandemic levels (March: -26.8%; 95% CI, -29.6% to -23.9%; April: -74.6%; 95% CI, -75.5% to -73.5%; December: -13.3%; 95% CI, -16.6%, -9.8%). Across all operative surgical urgency cohorts, White patients had the largest relative reduction in encounters. Conclusions and Relevance: As shown by this cohort study, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in large disruptions to surgical care across all categories of operative urgency, especially elective procedures. Racial and ethnic minority groups experienced less of a disruption to surgical care than White patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the decreased surgical use among White patients was owing to patient discretion and to document whether demand for surgical care will rebound to baseline levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa616, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069291

ABSTRACT

We report off-label use patterns for medications repurposed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 318 US hospitals. Inpatient hydroxychloroquine use declined by 80%, whereas corticosteroids and tocilizumab were initiated 2 days earlier in May versus March 2020. Two thirds of ventilated COVID-19 patients were already receiving corticosteroids during March-May 2020, resembling pre-COVID use in mechanically ventilated influenza patients.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 65-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in-hospital outcomes among patients with a history of heart failure (HF) hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic comorbidities are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with HF may be particularly susceptible to COVID-19 complications. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database was used to identify patients with at least 1 HF hospitalization or 2 HF outpatient visits between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, who were subsequently hospitalized between April and September 2020. Baseline characteristics, health care resource utilization, and mortality rates were compared between those hospitalized with COVID-19 and those hospitalized with other causes. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified in HF patients hospitalized with COVID-19 by using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1,212,153 patients with history of HF, 132,312 patients were hospitalized from April 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. A total of 23,843 patients (18.0%) were hospitalized with acute HF, 8,383 patients (6.4%) were hospitalized with COVID-19, and 100,068 patients (75.6%) were hospitalized with alternative reasons. Hospitalization with COVID-19 was associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality as compared with hospitalization with acute HF; 24.2% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 died in-hospital compared to 2.6% of those hospitalized with acute HF. This association was strongest in April (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 14.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]:12.25 to 17.12) than in subsequent months (adjusted OR: 10.11; 95% CI: 8.95 to 11.42; pinteraction <0.001). Among patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex (adjusted OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.40) and morbid obesity (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.46) were associated with greater odds of in-hospital mortality, along with age (adjusted OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.42 per 10 years) and admission earlier in the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19 are at high risk for complications, with nearly 1 in 4 dying during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029058, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969034

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 8.1 million US residents and killed more than 221 000. There is a dearth of research on epidemiology and clinical outcomes in US patients with COVID-19. Objectives: To characterize patients with COVID-19 treated in US hospitals and to examine risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using Premier Healthcare Database, a large geographically diverse all-payer hospital administrative database including 592 acute care hospitals in the United States. Inpatient and hospital-based outpatient visits with a principal or secondary discharge diagnosis of COVID-19 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code, U07.1) between April 1 and May 31, 2020, were included. Exposures: Characteristics of patients were reported by inpatient/outpatient and survival status. Risk factors associated with death examined included patient characteristics, acute complications, comorbidities, and medications. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, total hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, acute complications, and treatment patterns. Results: Overall, 64 781 patients with COVID-19 (29 479 [45.5%] outpatients; 35 302 [54.5%] inpatients) were analyzed. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 46 (33-59) years for outpatients and 65 (52-77) years for inpatients; 31 968 (49.3%) were men, 25 841 (39.9%) were White US residents, and 14 340 (22.1%) were Black US residents. In-hospital mortality was 20.3% among inpatients (7164 patients). A total of 5625 inpatients (15.9%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 6849 (19.4%) were admitted to the ICU. Median (IQR) inpatient LOS was 6 (3-10) days. Median (IQR) ICU LOS was 5 (2-10) days. Common acute complications among inpatients included acute respiratory failure (19 706 [55.8%]), acute kidney failure (11 971 [33.9%]), and sepsis (11 910 [33.7%]). Older age was the risk factor most strongly associated with death (eg, age ≥80 years vs 18-34 years: odds ratio [OR], 16.20; 95% CI, 11.58-22.67; P < .001). Receipt of statins (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65; P < .001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.46-0.60; P < .001), and calcium channel blockers (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79; P < .001) was associated with decreased odds of death. Compared with patients with no hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin, patients with both azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine had increased odds of death (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with COVID-19 infection in US acute care hospitals, COVID-19 was associated with high ICU admission and in-hospital mortality rates. Use of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers were associated with decreased odds of death. Understanding the potential benefits of unproven treatments will require future randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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