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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(5): e05851, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913763

ABSTRACT

We are going through the greatest global health crisis of the last decades, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It may cause morbidity and mortality in some cases, and there is no therapeutic approach with reproducible and favorable outcomes. As clinical manifestations differ from patient to patient, any report regarding clinical symptoms has been beneficial for early detection and treatment. Due to the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), MSCs-based therapy has been approved to be one of the therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 management. For the first time in the literature, we reported generalized lymphadenopathy with fever and no sign of respiratory distress in a 16-year-old patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection as the main clinical signs. We also introduce decidual stromal cells as a potential immunomodulatory treatment for COVID-19-infected patients.

2.
Hum Immunol ; 83(7): 580-588, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867196

ABSTRACT

Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) isolated from maternal part of placenta, like mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), are able to inhibit alloreactivity in-vitro but in a superior way which makes them an attractive alternative for anti-inflammatory therapies. In alloreactivity, when a strong immune response is developed against alloantigens, DSCs develop an anti-inflammatory environment, both through cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, to prevent the adverse effects of alloantigens. In alloreactivity-associated inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines can be released and then involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions which is one of the main causes of inflammatory related disorders. According to the preclinical and clinical studies, DSCs could be promising alternatives for the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases for which no definitive and successful treatment has been found yet. Here we first present the DSCs functions in creating the anti-inflammatory environment, their immunomodulatory effects, and their advantages over MSCs. Then, preclinical and clinical studies using DSCs for treatment of inflammatory disease including: graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoi-etic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT), COVID-19-associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and in particular, Infertility-related disorders, are presented. Finally, the challenges of using DSCs in clinical settings will be described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decidua , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Isoantigens , Stromal Cells
3.
Iran J Med Sci ; 46(5): 322-338, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports have associated the severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (sCOVID-19) with secondary-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and proposed utilizing the hemophagocytic syndrome diagnostic score (HScore) for sCOVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to find the possible association of HScore parameters with severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using all HScore and COVID-19 keywords. The studies were all from 2020, and the study language was limited to English. The records were screened based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random/fixed-effect models were employed for meta-analysis, based on the I2 index of parameters. The pooled mean differences were estimated for continuous parameters. The pooled odds-ratio was estimated for fever. The level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (comprising 2459 patients) out of 26151 screened studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the level of leukocyte, neutrophil, aspartate transaminase (AST), ferritin, and fibrinogen were significantly higher in sCOVID-19 patients than in non-severe ones. Significant lower levels of lymphocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin were also found in sCOVID-19 patients than non-severe patients. Fever was nearly associated with two times increased odds of sCOVID-19 (P=0.051). CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypohemoglobinemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of AST, and fever are common features of both sCOVID-19 and HLH. However, the leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and hyperfibrinogenemia found in sCOVID-19 are in contrast with HScore. Conclusively, HScore parameters could be risk factors for sCOVID-19. However, some parameters' roles are contradictory, suggesting the need for further investigation and a new way of HScore interpretation in sCOVID-19 patients.A preprint of this study was published at https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-54490/v2.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(22): 10554-10564, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462824

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of death in COVID-19 patients. The cytokine storm is the main driver of the severity and magnitude of ARDS. Placenta-derived decidua stromal cells (DSCs) have a stronger immunosuppressive effect than other sources of mesenchymal stromal cells. Safety and efficacy study included 10 patients with a median age of 50 (range 14-68) years with COVID-19-induced ARDS. DSCs were administered 1-2 times at a dose of 1 × 106 /kg. End points were safety and efficacy by survival, oxygenation and effects on levels of cytokines. Oxygenation levels increased from a median of 80.5% (range 69-88) to 95% (range 78-99) (p = 0.012), and pulmonary infiltrates disappeared in all patients. Levels of IL-6 decreased from a median of 69.3 (range 35.0-253.4) to 11 (range 4.0-38.3) pg/ml (p = 0.018), and CRP decreased from 69 (range 5-169) to 6 (range 2-31) mg/ml (p = 0.028). Two patients died, one of a myocardial infarction and the other of multiple organ failure, diagnosed before the DSC therapy. The other patients recovered and left the intensive care unit (ICU) within a median of 6 (range 3-12) days. DSC therapy is safe and capable of improving oxygenation, decreasing inflammatory cytokine level and clearing pulmonary infiltrates in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Transplantation/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Stromal Cells/transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Placenta/cytology , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Stromal Cells/physiology , Treatment Outcome
6.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103141, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerged pandemic disease with no specific treatment. One of the potential treatments in newly found infectious disease is plasma exchange (PE) with convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT). This case series aimed to evaluate the primary PE and CPT in five Iranian COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Five patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had acute respiratory distress syndrome and were supported by mechanical ventilation were treated with two consecutive PE containing fresh frozen plasma (FFP) of healthy donors and 0.9 % saline solution containing 5 % human albumin. Thereafter, CPT was performed just like PE, except that the FFP in this step was substituted with convalescent ABO-matched plasma. Clinical and laboratory factors were evaluated before and after treatments. RESULTS: Three to Four patients showed lower body temperature and improved oxygen saturation as well as reduced laboratory factors such as c-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase (total and myocardial isoform), aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin (total and direct), D-dimer, interleukin-6, and CD4+/CD8 + T cells ratio initially after PE and continued to improve so that they were discharged. One patient due to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and extensive lung fungal infection was expired. DISCUSSION: Overall, the PE followed by CPT was beneficial in reducing acute inflammation led to a considerable improvement in patients' clinical features. It seems that PE along with CPT could provide clearance of pro-inflammatory mediators as well as the positive effects of CPT. Controlled studies are required to confirm the effect of PE/CPT compared with other therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Respiration, Artificial
7.
Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench ; 13(4): 400-404, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008494

ABSTRACT

Today, COVID-19 pneumonia causes global concern. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported many mortalities from this disease all around the world. Therefore, recognizing new cases of COVID-19 is crucial during this pandemic. Many studies have shown that COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms, including GI and cutaneous manifestations. Previous studies have reported liver enzyme changes as well as diarrhea as a common GI manifestation of COVID-19. However, there are few reports about COVID-19 synchronous cutaneous and liver involvement. Additionally, there are few reports about intrahepatic cholestasis in COVID-19 patients. In this article, a confirmed case of COVID-19 with vasculopathy-related cutaneous manifestation and liver cholestasis is reported. A 67-year-old Iranian woman was admitted to Taleghani Hospital with epigastric pain, vomiting, anosmia, rising liver enzyme levels, fever, itching, and skin rashes. Skin and liver biopsies were performed during the patient's admission; the results suggested vasculopathy-related cutaneous lesion and liver cholestasis. Plasmapheresis was initiated and all manifestations disappeared after treatment. All atypical presentations, including cutaneous lesions and liver manifestations, should be considered as COVID-19 and evaluated.

8.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 486-492, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequently observed complication in COVID-19 patients with high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To observe the clinical effect of plasmapheresis on excessive inflammatory reaction and immune features in patients with severe COVID-19 at risk of ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center study, we included 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR and CT imaging according to WHO guidelines. Plasmapheresis was performed to alleviate cytokine-induced ARDS. The improvement in oxygen delivery (PaO2/FiO2), total number of T cells, liver enzymes, acute reaction proteins, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6), and acute phase reaction proteins including ferritin and CRP were high before plasmapheresis. After plasmapheresis, the levels of PaO2/FiO2, acute phase reactants, inflammatory mediators, liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly reduced within a week (p < 0.05). In contrast, although the number of T helper cells decreased immediately after plasmapheresis, they rose to above baseline levels after 1 week. Nine out of fifteen patients on non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) survived whilst the six patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) died. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that plasmapheresis improves systemic cytokine and immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19 who do not undergo IMV. Further controlled studies are required to explore the efficacy of plasmapheresis treatment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasmapheresis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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