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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated fungal infections cause severe illness, but comprehensive data on disease burden are lacking. We analyzed US National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data to characterize disease burden, temporal trends, and demographic characteristics of persons dying from fungal infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using NVSS's January 2018-December 2021 Multiple Cause of Death Database, we examined numbers and age-adjusted rates (per 100,000 population) of fungal deaths by fungal pathogen, COVID-19 association, demographic characteristics, and year. RESULTS: Numbers and age-adjusted rates of fungal deaths increased from 2019 (n = 4,833, rate 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.3) to 2021 (n = 7,199, rate: 1.8, 95% CI = 1.8-1.8); of 13,121 fungal deaths during 2020-2021, 2,868 (21.9%) were COVID-19-associated. Compared with non-COVID-19-associated fungal deaths (n = 10,253), COVID-19-associated fungal deaths more frequently involved Candida (n = 776 [27.1%] versus n = 2,432 [23.7%]) and Aspergillus (n = 668 [23.3%] versus n = 1,486 [14.5%]) and less frequently involved other specific fungal pathogens. Fungal death rates were generally highest in non-White and non-Asian populations. Death rates from Aspergillus infections were approximately two times higher in the Pacific US census division compared with most other divisions. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal deaths increased during 2020-2021 compared with previous years, primarily driven by COVID-19-associated fungal deaths, particularly those involving Aspergillus and Candida. Our findings may inform efforts to prevent, identify, and treat severe fungal infections in COVID-19 patients, especially in certain racial/ethnic groups and geographic areas.

2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 411-416, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the United States, infection with SARS-CoV-2 caused 380,000 reported deaths from March to December 2020. METHODS: We adapted the Moving Epidemic Method to all-cause mortality data from the United States to assess the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic across age groups and all 50 states. By comparing all-cause mortality during the pandemic with intensity thresholds derived from recent, historical all-cause mortality, we categorized each week from March to December 2020 as either low severity, moderate severity, high severity, or very high severity. RESULTS: Nationally for all ages combined, all-cause mortality was in the very high severity category for 9 weeks. Among people 18 to 49 years of age, there were 29 weeks of consecutive very high severity mortality. Forty-seven states, the District of Columbia, and New York City each experienced at least 1 week of very high severity mortality for all ages combined. CONCLUSIONS: These periods of very high severity of mortality during March through December 2020 are likely directly or indirectly attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This method for standardized comparison of severity over time across different geographies and demographic groups provides valuable information to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify specific locations or subgroups for deeper investigations into differences in severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geography , Humans , Infant , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2133-2140, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562412

ABSTRACT

The National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS's) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects, processes, codes, and reviews death certificate data and disseminates the data in annual data files and reports. With the global rise of COVID-19 in early 2020, the NCHS mobilized to rapidly respond to the growing need for reliable, accurate, and complete real-time data on COVID-19 deaths. Within weeks of the first reported US cases, NCHS developed certification guidance, adjusted internal data processing systems, and stood up a surveillance system to release daily updates of COVID-19 deaths to track the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on US mortality. This report describes the processes that NCHS took to produce timely mortality data in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2133-2140. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306519).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Data Collection/standards , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Vital Statistics , Cause of Death , Clinical Coding/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Health Status Disparities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(33): 1114-1119, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365865

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected Hispanic or Latino, non-Hispanic Black (Black), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NH/PI) populations in the United States. These populations have experienced higher rates of infection and mortality compared with the non-Hispanic White (White) population (1-5) and greater excess mortality (i.e., the percentage increase in the number of persons who have died relative to the expected number of deaths for a given place and time) (6). A limitation of existing research on excess mortality among racial/ethnic minority groups has been the lack of adjustment for age and population change over time. This study assessed excess mortality incidence rates (IRs) (e.g., the number of excess deaths per 100,000 person-years) in the United States during December 29, 2019-January 2, 2021, by race/ethnicity and age group using data from the National Vital Statistics System. Among all assessed racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic Asian [Asian], AI/AN, Black, Hispanic, NH/PI, and White populations), excess mortality IRs were higher among persons aged ≥65 years (426.4 to 1033.5 excess deaths per 100,000 person-years) than among those aged 25-64 years (30.2 to 221.1) and those aged <25 years (-2.9 to 14.1). Among persons aged <65 years, Black and AI/AN populations had the highest excess mortality IRs. Among adults aged ≥65 years, Black and Hispanic persons experienced the highest excess mortality IRs of >1,000 excess deaths per 100,000 person-years. These findings could help guide more tailored public health messaging and mitigation efforts to reduce disparities in mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States,* by identifying the racial/ethnic groups and age groups with the highest excess mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Mortality/trends , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1517-1521, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890757

ABSTRACT

During February 12-October 15, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in approximately 7,900,000 aggregated reported cases and approximately 216,000 deaths in the United States.* Among COVID-19-associated deaths reported to national case surveillance during February 12-May 18, persons aged ≥65 years and members of racial and ethnic minority groups were disproportionately represented (1). This report describes demographic and geographic trends in COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the National Vital Statistics System† (NVSS) during May 1-August 31, 2020, by 50 states and the District of Columbia. During this period, 114,411 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported. Overall, 78.2% of decedents were aged ≥65 years, and 53.3% were male; 51.3% were non-Hispanic White (White), 24.2% were Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), and 18.7% were non-Hispanic Black (Black). The number of COVID-19-associated deaths decreased from 37,940 in May to 17,718 in June; subsequently, counts increased to 30,401 in July and declined to 28,352 in August. From May to August, the percentage distribution of COVID-19-associated deaths by U.S. Census region increased from 23.4% to 62.7% in the South and from 10.6% to 21.4% in the West. Over the same period, the percentage distribution of decedents who were Hispanic increased from 16.3% to 26.4%. COVID-19 remains a major public health threat regardless of age or race and ethnicity. Deaths continued to occur disproportionately among older persons and certain racial and ethnic minorities, particularly among Hispanic persons. These results can inform public health messaging and mitigation efforts focused on prevention and early detection of infection among disproportionately affected groups.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
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