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1.
Journal of Reproduction & Infertility ; 23(2):120-127, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811707

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to impact the lifestyle of couples of reproductive age and, in particular, their desire for parenthood. The purpose of this study was to carry out an evaluation on the potential changes of desire for parenthood among infertile couples waiting for assisted reproduction during the pandemic. Methods: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, the quality of sexual life in Italian infertile couples was assessed and their well-being was evaluated before the pandemic and during the quarantine. All couples were asked to fill out a questionnaire, in which their desire for parenthood, sexual life, and well-being were investigated. Results: Out of 1650 cases, 300 patients were finally enrolled. COVID-19 negatively impacted the well-being of individuals, leading to significantly reduced scores of happiness, feeling energetic, and interest in life (p<0.05). Although most couples had prolonged infertility, a small number of cases (4.0%) achieved a spontaneous natural pregnancy during the lockdown, probably due to more intimacy and longer time spent together. However, major concerns about the consequential effects of the virus on pregnancy and the risk of contagion in the hospital led a small number of infertile couples (5.0%) to decide to postpone their parenting project. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic may have created a further negative impact on couples, reducing their desire for parenthood. This attitude could result in a decrease in births in the near future.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052665, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed at identifying baseline predictive factors for emergency department (ED) readmission, with hospitalisation/death, in patients with COVID-19 previously discharged from the ED. We also developed a disease progression velocity index. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. The charts of consecutive patients with COVID-19 discharged from the Reggio Emilia (Italy) ED (2 March 2 to 31 March 2020) were retrospectively examined. Clinical, laboratory and CT findings at first ED admission were tested as predictive factors using multivariable logistic models. We divided CT extension by days from symptom onset to build a synthetic velocity index. PARTICIPANTS: 450 patients discharged from the ED with diagnosis of COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ED readmission within 14 days, followed by hospitalisation/death. RESULTS: Of the discharged patients, 84 (18.7%) were readmitted to the ED, 61 (13.6%) were hospitalised and 10 (2.2%) died. Age (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.08), Charlson Comorbidity Index 3 versus 0 (OR=11.61; 95% CI 1.76 to 76.58), days from symptom onset (OR for 1-day increase=0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90) and CT extension (OR for 1% increase=1.03; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06) were associated in a multivariable model for readmission with hospitalisation/death. A 2-day lag velocity index was a strong predictor (OR for unit increase=1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36); the model including this index resulted in less information loss. CONCLUSIONS: A velocity index combining CT extension and days from symptom onset predicts disease progression in patients with COVID-19. For example, a 20% CT extension 3 days after symptom onset has the same risk as does 50% after 10 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Readmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4270, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740475

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory burden is associated with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Residual computed tomography (CT) lung abnormalities have been reported after COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate the association between inflammatory burden during COVID-19 and residual lung CT abnormalities collected on follow-up CT scans performed 2-3 and 6-7 months after COVID-19, in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. C-reactive protein (CRP) curves describing inflammatory burden during the clinical course were built, and CRP peaks, velocities of increase, and integrals were calculated. Other putative determinants were age, sex, mechanical ventilation, lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio, D-dimer peak, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of the 259 included patients (median age 65 years; 30.5% females), 202 (78%) and 100 (38.6%) had residual, predominantly non-fibrotic, abnormalities at 2-3 and 6-7 months, respectively. In age- and sex-adjusted models, best CRP predictors for residual abnormalities were CRP peak (odds ratio [OR] for one standard deviation [SD] increase = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-2.62) at 2-3 months and CRP integral (OR for one SD increase = 2.24; 95%CI = 1.53-3.28) at 6-7 months. Hence, inflammation is associated with short- and medium-term lung damage in COVID-19. Other severity measures, including mechanical ventilation and LOS, but not D-dimer, were mediators of the relationship between CRP and residual abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731957

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody therapies for COVID-19 have been frequently used in adults, whereas there are little data regarding the safety or efficacy of monoclonal antibody treatments in pediatric patients affected by COVID-19. We report our experience in the administration of mAb as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children aged from 24 days to 18 years old.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319242

ABSTRACT

Evidence-based medicine relies on appropriately designed, conducted and reported clinical trials (CTs) to provide the best proofs of efficacy and safety for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Modern clinical research features high complexity and requires a high workload for the management of trials-related activities, often hampering physicians’ participation to clinical trials. Dealing with children in clinical research adds complexity: rare diseases, parents or legal guardian reluctance to engage and recruitment difficulties are major reasons of pediatric trials failure. However, because in pediatrics many treatments are prescribed off-label or are lacking, well-designed clinical trials are particularly needed. Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) are indeed an important asset in the implementation of clinical trials, but their support to investigators is limited to administrative and non-clinical tasks. In this paper we present the model of the Investigational Clinical Center (ICC) of the Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital in Rome. The ICC includes clinicians supporting the Principal Investigators for clinical management of enrolled patients in compliance of Good Clinical Practice, the legal framework of Clinical Trials. Furthermore, we present ten years’ experience in pediatric clinical trials and how it has been affected in 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. The activity of the ICC has been evaluated according to specific metrics of performance. The ICC model offers a complete support, helping investigators, patients and their families to overcome majority of barriers linked to clinical research, even in time of pandemic. We propose this organization as an innovative model for total-supportive and patient-centered clinical trial implementation.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs, thus it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study seeks to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children with distinct symptomatology. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, we recruited 15 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic (AS) and 51 symptomatic children (SY), stratified according to WHO clinical classification. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using ddPCR and qPCR in longitudinally collected nasopharyngeal swabs samples. To define anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we measured neutralization activity and total IgG load (Diasorin). We also evaluated antigen-specific B and CD8+T-cells, using a labelled S1+S2 protein and ICAM expression, respectively. Plasma protein profiling was performed with Olink. RESULTS: Virological profiling showed that AS had lower viral load at diagnosis (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Anti-SARS CoV-2 humoral and cellular response did not appear to be associated with the presence of symptoms. AS and SY showed similar titers of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, levels of neutralizing activity, and frequency of Ag-specific B and CD8+T-cells. Whereas pro-inflammatory plasma protein profile was associated to symptomatology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral and cellular response with any regards to symptomatology, suggesting the ability of both SY and AS to contribute towards herd immunity. The virological profiling of AS suggested that they have lower virus load associated with faster virus clearance.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308827

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses and with the school reopening, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 42 COVID-19-infected children 7 days after symptoms onset. Individuals with specific humoral responses presented faster virus clearance, and lower viral load associated to a reduced in vitro infectivity. We demonstrated that the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were associated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab and the magnitude of neutralizing activity. The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ patients showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). This work shed lights on cellular and humoral anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in children which may drive future vaccination trials endpoints and quarantine measures policies.Funding: This work was made possible by support from Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital ricerca corrente 2020 to NC and ricerca corrente 2019 to PP, by PENTA and by Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo, Progetti di Ricerca Covid-19 (ADR participant).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Local ethical committee approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or legal guardians.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308616

ABSTRACT

Background: In early January 2020, a novel type of Coronavirus was identified in a patient affected by pneumonia of unknown origin. The virus will be named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 a month later by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy.Italy is one of the first countries in the world affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with 1.2% of all patients represented by children. Although the infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties.To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive rhino-pharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge.Materials and MethodsWe monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, 19 children aged between 8 months and 15 years, hospitalized in the “Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù” COVID Center with positive rhino-pharyngeal swab at discharge. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative rhino-pharyngeal swabs.ResultsDuring the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized, 1 patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin a D-dimers.We didn’t miss any patient during the follow up.ConclusionWe demonstrated that daily telephonic follow up is safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive swab, it allows to avoid long term hospitalization and to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complication such as MIS-C.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306777

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess sensitivity and specificity of CT vs RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia in a prospective Italian cohort of symptomatic patients during the outbreak peak. Methods: : In this cross-sectional study we included all consecutive patients who presented to the ER between March 13 th and 23 rd for suspected COVID-19 and underwent both CT and RT-PCR within 3 days. Using a structured report, radiologists prospectively classified CTs in highly suggestive, suggestive, and non-suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. Ground-glass, consolidation, and visual extension of parenchymal changes were collected. Three different RT-PCR-based reference standard definitions were used. Oxygen saturation level, CRP, LDH, and blood cell counts were collected and compared between CT/RT-PCR classes. Results: : The study included 696 patients (41.4% women;age 59±15.8 years): 423/454 (93%) patients with highly suggestive CT, 97/127 (76%) with suggestive CT, and 31/115 (27%) with non-suggestive CT had positive RT-PCR. CT sensitivity ranged from 73% to 77% and from 90% to 94% for high and low positivity threshold, respectively. Specificity ranged from 79% to 84% for high positivity threshold and was about 58% for low positivity threshold. PPV remained ≥90% in all cases. Ground-glass was more frequent in patients with positive RT-PCR in all CT classes. Blood tests were significantly associated with RT-PCR and CT classes. Leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets decreased, CRP and LDH increased from non-suggestive to suggestive CT classes. Conclusions: : During the outbreak peak, CT presented high PPV and may be considered a good reference to recognize COVID-19 patients while waiting for RT-PCR confirmation.

11.
Vox Sang ; 117(2): 235-242, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The first wave of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) dramatically affected the Transfusion Medicine Unit of the Azienda Unità Sanitari Locale - Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (AUSL-IRCCS) di Reggio Emilia, which faced a total rearrangement of the procedures for donors and patients. This study aims to assess the major implications of COVID-19 on our department, focusing on the blood transfusion chain and therapies, in order to support transfusion specialists in seeking efficient ways to face similar future emergencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study compares our Transfusion Medicine Unit data collected between February and May 2020 with the same period in 2017-2019. Data on red blood cells and platelets donations, transfusions and clinical procedures were collected as aggregates from our internal electronic database. RESULTS: During the lockdown, donor centres were re-organized to reduce the risk of contagion and avoid unnecessary blood collection. Blood donations were re-scheduled to meet the decrease in elective surgery; consequently, plateletapheresis was implemented to supply the reduction of buffycoat-derived platelets. Transfusions significantly decreased together with orthopaedic and vascular surgery, while they were only marginally diminished for both cancer and onco-haematological patients. Reduced procedures for inpatients and outpatients were matched by remote medicine, addressing the need of a constant healthcare support for patients with chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The described measures were adopted to avoid excessive blood collection and expiration, guarantee the safety of our ward (for both patients and staff) and supply the necessary transfusion therapies. These measures may support the development of appropriate risk management plans and safety procedures for other hospitals and transfusion services that have to face similar events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Transfusion Medicine , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667210

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in young people with Down syndrome (DS), and to compare their humoral immune response with those of the healthy controls (HC). Individuals with DS and HC received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Longitudinal blood samples were collected on the day of vaccination, twenty-one days after the first dose, seven days after the second dose, and six months after the first dose. Both the local and systemic adverse events reported by participants were mild. Pain at the injection site was the most reported local adverse event, while fever was the systemic adverse event. Humoral responses showed a significant increase of anti-S and anti-S trimeric antibody (Ab) levels after both doses of vaccine in both groups. In comparison with HC, Ab levels in individuals with DS were similar at T21, but significantly lower, both in terms anti-S and anti-S trimeric, at T28 (respectively p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0001). At T180 both groups showed a significant reduction of anti-S trimeric Ab levels compared to T28 (p = 0.0004 and p < 0.0001 for DS and HC, respectively). Individuals with DS exhibit a good humoral response to the BNT162b2 vaccine; however, similarly to in HC, the immune response wanes over time.

13.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(5): 702-707, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the restrictions put in place to control the COVID-19 pandemic on new diagnoses of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in Italy. METHODS: Twelve of the 21 Italian malignant mesothelioma CORs (regional operating centres) participated. The study included all cases of MM with microscopic confirmation; cases without microscopic confirmation and death certificate only (DCO) were excluded. For each case, information on sex, date of birth, tumor site, morphology, and date of diagnosis was retrieved. We compared the number of incident cases in 2020 with 2019, looking at the overall picture and for four periods: pre-pandemic (January-February), first wave (March-May), low incidence (June-September), and second wave (October-December). RESULTS: A total of 604 cases were registered: 307 in 2019 and 297 in 2020. In the 2020 pre-pandemic period, the incidence was higher than in the same months in 2019 (+45%); there was no significant change during the first wave (+1%) or in the low-incidence period (-3%), while a decrease was observed during the second wave (-32%). However, the data were not homogeneous across the country: the increase in the pre-pandemic period concerned mostly the regions of northern (+61.5%) and central Italy (+43.5%); during the first wave, MM diagnoses increased in the northern (+38.5%) and central (+11.4%) regions but decreased in the southern regions (-52.9%). All these differences are compatible with random fluctuations. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had little or no impact on new MM diagnoses, and variations were not homogeneous throughout the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Mesothelioma , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Mesothelioma/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572486

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the number of deaths increased in Italy, mainly because of the COVID-19 pandemic; mortality was among the highest in Europe, with a clear heterogeneity among regions and socio-demographic strata. The present work aims to describe trends in mortality and to quantify excess mortality variability over time and in relation to demographics, pre-existent chronic conditions and care setting of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). This is a registry-based cross-sectional study comparing the 2020 observed mortality with figures of the previous five years by age, sex, month, place of death, and chronicity. It includes 300,094 deaths in those 18 years of age and above resident in the Emilia-Romagna region. Excess deaths were higher during the first pandemic wave, particularly among men and in March. Age-adjusted risk was similar among both men and women (Mortality Rate Ratio 1.15; IC95% 1.14-1.16). It was higher among females aged 75+ years and varied between sub-periods. Excluding COVID-19 related deaths, differences in the risk of dying estimates tended to disappear. Metabolic and neuropsychiatric diseases were more prevalent among those that deceased in 2020 compared to the deaths that occurred in 2015-2019 and therefore can be confirmed as elements of increased frailty, such as being in long-term care facilities or private homes as the place of death. Understanding the impact of the pandemic on mortality considering frailties is relevant in a changing scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572481

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, affecting all age groups with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic to severe interstitial pneumonia, hyperinflammation, and death. Children and infants generally show a mild course of the disease, although infants have been observed to have a higher risk of hospitalization and severe outcomes. Here, we report the case of a preterm infant with a severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis successfully treated with steroids, hyperimmune plasma, and remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294380

ABSTRACT

Background: in the 2020, the number of deaths increased substantially in Italy, mainly because of the COVID-19 pandemic;mortality was among the highest in Europe, with a clear heterogeneity among regions and socio-demographic strata. The present work aims at quantifying excess mortality variability over time and in relation to demographic and pre-existent chronic conditions and care setting in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. Methods registry-based study, comparing the 2020 observed mortality with the figures of the previous 5 years by age, sex, month, place of death, and pre-existing chronic conditions and including 300 094 deaths referred to 18+ aged people resident in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). Results excess deaths were higher during the first pandemic wave, particularly among man in March. Age-adjusted risk was similar among both men and women (Mortality Rate Ratio 1.15;IC95% 1.14-1.16). The risk of dying was sensibly higher among females aged 75+ years, in Long-term Care Facilities and at home. Excluding COVID-19 related deaths, differences in the risk of dying estimates tended to disappear. Metabolic and neuropsychiatric diseases were more prevalent among those deceased in 2020 compared to the deaths occurred in 2015-19. Conclusions no particular differences of risk by sex and age were found, despite the heterogeneity of the effect in relation to the sub-periods. Metabolic and neuropsychiatric diseases have been confirmed as elements of increased frailty, such as being in Long-term Care Facilities or private home as place of death. Understanding the impact of the pandemic on overall mortality is relevant in a changing scenario.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477826

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune response plays a pivotal role in dictating the clinical outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected adults, but it is still poorly investigated in the pediatric population. Methods: Of 209 enrolled subjects, 155 patients were confirmed by PCR and/or serology as having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Blood samples were obtained at a median of 2.8 (interquartile, 2.1-3.7) and 6.1 (5.3-7.2) months after baseline (symptom onset and/or first positive virus detection). The immune profiles of activation, senescence, exhaustion, and regulatory cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were detected by a plaque reduction neutralization test. In available nasopharyngeal swabs at baseline, SARS-CoV-2 levels were quantified by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Results: Overall, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of immune activation, exhaustion, and regulatory cells compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Within the COVID-19 group, activated and senescent cells were higher in adults than in children and inversely correlated with the nAbs levels. Conversely, Tregs and Bregs regulatory cells were higher in COVID-19 children compared to adults and positively correlated with nAbs. Higher immune activation still persisted in adults after 6 months of infection, while children maintained higher levels of regulatory cells. SARS-CoV-2 levels did not differ among age classes. Conclusions: Adults displayed higher immune activation and lower production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs than children. The different immune response was not related to different viral load. The higher expression of regulatory cells in children may contribute to reduce the immune activation, thus leading to a greater specific response against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/immunology
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821

ABSTRACT

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
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