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Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925439


Objective: To evaluate clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of acute neuroinflammatory disorders (ANIDs) that followed the 2016 Zika epidemic in Colombia. Background: The outbreak of Zika virus infection in Colombia in 2015-2016, produced an increased incidence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and other ANID cases. The Neuroviruses Emerging in the Americas Study (NEAS) network was established in 2016 as a multicenter-based observatory of ANIDs to investigate the role of emerging pathogens in neuroinflammatory diseases. Design/Methods: NEAS serves as a multi-center study based on 13 hospitals in 7 cities in Colombia which study all newly diagnosed patients who fulfill established criteria for GBS, encephalitis, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, or cranial nerve disorders as part of an observational cohort. We analyzed the clinical and epidemiological features of all cases evaluated between January 2016 and September 2021. Results: An observational cohort of 825 patients with ANIDs were recruited during the study period. 58.8% of cases were male with a median age of 43 (IQR 25-58) years. The most frequent ANIDs were GBS (46.1%) and facial nerve palsy (28.7%). The diagnosis of encephalitis (9.5%), myelitis (6.5%), and optic neuritis (5.9%) were less frequent. Patients with GBS were predominantly male (70.6%) and had a median age of 49 (IQR 32-60) years. Interestingly, there was an increase incidence of GBS in 2019. Conclusions: The outbreak of Zika in Colombia produced a marked increase in the incidence of GBS in 2016. Although cases of GBS and other ANIDs continued to emerge after the incidence of Zika infection decreased in July 2016, the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has not produced any significant increase in the incidence of GBS in Colombia.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S265-S266, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746673


Background. The differentiation between dengue and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnoses is a challenge in tropical regions due to the similarity of symptoms and limited access to specific diagnostic tests for each disease. The objective of this study was to describe the initial symptoms and laboratory test values of patients who presented to the emergency department with dengue or COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was performed in a single center in Cali, Colombia Methods. The inclusion criteria were patients with a diagnosis of dengue or COVID-19 who were older than 14 years of age. All patients experienced fever or other symptoms for fewer than ten days. Linear regression was performed to evaluate the differences in the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) between patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and dengue and was adjusted for sex and age group (≤31 and >31 years). The sample size was calculated to test the hypothesis that the median NLR in COVID-19 patients is higher than that in dengue patients. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses Results. A total of 93 patients were included: 70 with dengue and 23 with COVID-19. Dengue patients were younger than COVID-19 patients. There were significant differences between dengue and COVID-19 patients regarding platelet count (p< 0.01), neutrophil count (p< 0.01), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p< 0.01), and abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) (p=0.03). The NLR was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in dengue patients (p< 0.01). Conclusion. In conclusion, during the first week of symptoms, absolute neutrophil count, NLR, and platelet count could help guide the initial differential approach between dengue and COVID-19. These findings could be useful in geographical areas with a lack of resources.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S274, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746654


Background. SOTs (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 are considered to be at high risk of severe clinical outcomes. Several descriptive studies have reported a high frequency of intensive care unit admission and death rates. There is a lack of evidence regarding the best approach for immunosuppressive therapy in SOT recipients with COVID-19. Methods. We performed a single-centered, retrospective, observational study of all SOT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swab specimens who were admitted to the emergency department from March 25 to September 1, 2020. Glucocorticoid therapy was administered according to the criteria of the attending physician. We classified glucocorticoid dose as low dose therapy if the patient received dexamethasone 6 mg/day or methylprednisolone 40 mg/day, and a high dose if the patient received methylprednisolone 80-160 mg/day. Specimens collected within the first 48 hours were defined coinfection, while specimens collected after 48 hours were defined as hospital-acquired superinfection. Results. Of a total of 43 SOT recipients with COVID-19, 17 (39%) required intensive care unit admission. 32 (74.4%) required glucocorticoid therapy: 13 received low dose and 19 high dose. 15 (34.8%) had secondary infections. A total of 12 (27.9%) presented hospital-acquired bacterial superinfections, mostly caused by P. aeruginosa, most of isolations were from respiratory tract cultures. The median time from hospital admission to superinfection diagnosis was 9 (7-13) days. Community-acquired co-infection at COVID-19 diagnosis was documented only in 3 (6.9%) patients, mostly caused by K. Pneumoniae, all isolations were from urine culture. Glucocorticoid therapy was indicated in 32 (80%) patients, 19 received high dose and 13 low doses. Overall hospital mortality was 17.5%. ICU mortality was 41%. Overall mortality in the high dose steroids group was 37 % vs . 0% in the low dose group. Conclusion. Our results showed a higher frequency of superinfection in SOT recipients with COVID-19 compared to previous reports, and higher ICU mortality. Further studies are needed to establish the best approach for glucocorticoid therapy in SOT recipients with COVID-19.