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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873927

ABSTRACT

Although neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 correlate with protection against COVID-19, little is known about the neutralizing and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to COVID-19, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccination in children. We enrolled children 0-21 years of age with history of COVID-19 (n=13), MIS-C (n=13), or two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination (n=14) into a phlebotomy protocol. We measured pseudovirus neutralizing and functional ADCC antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron (B.1.1.529). The primary BNT162b2 vaccination series elicited higher neutralizing and ADCC responses with greater breadth to SARS-CoV-2 variants than COVID-19 or MIS-C. However, serologic responses were significantly reduced against variants, particularly Omicron.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863906

ABSTRACT

Background The Adaptive COVID Treatment Trial-2 (ACTT-2) found that baricitinib in combination with remdesivir therapy (BCT) sped recovery in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus remdesivir monotherapy (RMT). We examined how BCT affected progression throughout hospitalization and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies. Methods We characterized the clinical trajectories of 891 ACTT-2 participants requiring supplemental oxygen or higher levels of respiratory support at enrollment. We estimated the effect of BCT on cumulative incidence of clinical improvement and deterioration using competing risks models. We developed multistate models (MSM) to estimate the effect of BCT on clinical improvement and deterioration, and on utilization of respiratory therapies. Results BCT resulted in more linear improvement and lower incidence of clinical deterioration compared with RMT (HR, 0.74;95% CI, 0.58–0.95). The benefit was pronounced among participants enrolled on high-flow oxygen or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. In this group, BCT sped clinical improvement (HR, 1.21;95% CI, 0.99–1.51) while slowing clinical deterioration (HR = 0.71;95% CI, 0.48–1.02), which reduced the expected days in ordinal score (OS) 6 per 100 patients by 74 days (95% CI, -8–154) and the expected days in OS 7 per 100 patients by 161 days (95% CI, 46–291) compared with RMT. BCT did not benefit participants who were mechanically ventilated at enrollment. Conclusions Compared with RMT, BCT reduces the clinical burden and utilization of intensive respiratory therapies for patients requiring low-flow oxygen or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation compared with RMT, and may thereby improve care for a patient population.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 testing policies for symptomatic children attending U.S. schools or daycare vary, and whether isolated symptoms should prompt testing is unclear. We evaluated children presenting for SARS-CoV-2 testing to determine if the likelihood of having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test differed between participants with one versus ≥2 symptoms, and to examine the predictive capability of isolated symptoms. METHODS: Participants ≤ 18 years presenting for clinical SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing in six sites in urban/suburban/rural Georgia (July-October, 2021; delta variant predominant) were queried about individual symptoms. Participants were classified into three groups: asymptomatic, one symptom only, or ≥2 symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 test results and clinical characteristics of the three groups were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) for isolated symptoms were calculated by fitting a saturated Poisson model. RESULTS: Of 602 participants, 21.8% tested positive and 48.7% had a known or suspected close contact. Children reporting one symptom (n=82; OR=6.00, 95% CI: 2.70-13.33) and children reporting ≥2 symptoms (n=365; OR=5.25: 2.66-10.38) were significantly more likely to have a positive COVID-19 test than asymptomatic children (n=155), but they were not significantly different from each other (OR=0.88: 0.52-1.49). Sensitivity/PPV were highest for isolated fever (33%/57%), cough (25%/32%), and sore throat (21%/45%); headache had low sensitivity (8%) but higher PPV (33%). Sensitivity/PPV of isolated congestion/rhinorrhea were 8%/9%. CONCLUSIONS: With high delta variant prevalence, children with isolated symptoms were as likely as those with multiple symptoms to test positive for COVID-19. Isolated fever, cough, sore throat, or headache, but not congestion/rhinorrhea, offered highest predictive value.

4.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831236

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective analysis, we describe weekly croup and corresponding viral prevalence patterns in a pediatric quaternary care system in metropolitan Atlanta. We characterize a series of 24 patients with croup associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and show that this clinical presentation increased substantially in frequency during the period of high Omicron vs Delta transmission.

5.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(s1):38-39, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1795915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare rates and types of neurological symptoms in children hospitalized with seizures and respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and endemic coronaviruses. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective cohort study of children between 0-21 years of age admitted to a single pediatric free-standing quaternary referral center from January 1, 2014 to June 1, 2021 for seizures who had positive respiratory infection PCR for SARS-CoV-2, other coronaviruses (Coronavirus NL63 and Coronavirus OC34), influenza (A and B), adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 or 4 infections. Patient characteristics including age, race, sex, ethnicity, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission, intubation, chest x-ray, and MRI results were included. The primary outcomes were rates of neurological diagnoses and mortality. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 883 children were included: 68 SARS-CoV-2, 232 influenza, and 187 with other coronaviruses (OC), 214 adenovirus, 20 M. pneumoniae, 121 parainfluenza 3, and 41 parainfluenza 4. Mortality rates were 0% M pneumoniae to 4.9% in parainfluenza 4, with 2.9% in SARS-CoV-2. Encephalopathy was noted in 5-15.6% and strokes were seen in all infections except for coronavirus OC43 and M. pneumoniae, with 4.9% in parainfluenza 4 and 5.9% in SARS-CoV-2. The most common brain MRI abnormality was diffusion restriction. Differences between SARS-CoV-2 and OC were observed in stroke (5.9% vs. 0.5%, p-value=0.019), ICU admission (50% vs. 69%, p-value=0.008), and intubation (19.1% vs. 34.8%, p-value=0.021, respectively). However, the rates of neurological symptoms were similar between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We found higher rates of stroke, but lower rates of ICU admission and intubation in SARS-CoV-2 versus OC. Strokes were observed in many infections. Rates of neurological symptoms were similar in SARS-CoV-2 versus influenza patients. Vigilance should be undertaken in treatment of children presenting with all respiratory illnesses.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(5): 1592-1606.e16, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening sequela of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection characterized by hyperinflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. Although hyperinflammation is a prominent manifestation of MIS-C, there is limited understanding of how the inflammatory state of MIS-C differs from that of well-characterized hyperinflammatory syndromes such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the qualitative and quantitative inflammatory profile differences between patients with MIS-C, coronavirus disease 2019, and HLH. METHODS: Clinical data abstraction from patient charts, T-cell immunophenotyping, and multiplex cytokine and chemokine profiling were performed for patients with MIS-C, patients with coronavirus disease 2019, and patients with HLH. RESULTS: We found that both patients with MIS-C and patients with HLH showed robust T-cell activation, markers of senescence, and exhaustion along with elevated TH1 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10. In comparison, the amplitude of T-cell activation and the levels of cytokines/chemokines were higher in patients with HLH when compared with patients with MIS-C. Distinguishing inflammatory features of MIS-C included elevation in TH2 inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and cytokine mediators of angiogenesis, vascular injury, and tissue repair such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and platelet-derived growth factor. Immune activation and hypercytokinemia in MIS-C resolved at follow-up. In addition, when these immune parameters were correlated with clinical parameters, CD8+ T-cell activation correlated with cardiac dysfunction parameters such as B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin and inversely correlated with platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study characterizes unique and overlapping immunologic features that help to define the hyperinflammation associated with MIS-C versus HLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 386(11): 1046-1057, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the three vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) that have received emergency use authorization in the United States are highly effective, breakthrough infections are occurring. Data are needed on the serial use of homologous boosters (same as the primary vaccine) and heterologous boosters (different from the primary vaccine) in fully vaccinated recipients. METHODS: In this phase 1-2, open-label clinical trial conducted at 10 sites in the United States, adults who had completed a Covid-19 vaccine regimen at least 12 weeks earlier and had no reported history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection received a booster injection with one of three vaccines: mRNA-1273 (Moderna) at a dose of 100 µg, Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson-Janssen) at a dose of 5×1010 virus particles, or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) at a dose of 30 µg. The primary end points were safety, reactogenicity, and humoral immunogenicity on trial days 15 and 29. RESULTS: Of the 458 participants who were enrolled in the trial, 154 received mRNA-1273, 150 received Ad26.COV2.S, and 153 received BNT162b2 as booster vaccines; 1 participant did not receive the assigned vaccine. Reactogenicity was similar to that reported for the primary series. More than half the recipients reported having injection-site pain, malaise, headache, or myalgia. For all combinations, antibody neutralizing titers against a SARS-CoV-2 D614G pseudovirus increased by a factor of 4 to 73, and binding titers increased by a factor of 5 to 55. Homologous boosters increased neutralizing antibody titers by a factor of 4 to 20, whereas heterologous boosters increased titers by a factor of 6 to 73. Spike-specific T-cell responses increased in all but the homologous Ad26.COV2.S-boosted subgroup. CD8+ T-cell levels were more durable in the Ad26.COV2.S-primed recipients, and heterologous boosting with the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine substantially increased spike-specific CD8+ T cells in the mRNA vaccine recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Homologous and heterologous booster vaccines had an acceptable safety profile and were immunogenic in adults who had completed a primary Covid-19 vaccine regimen at least 12 weeks earlier. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; DMID 21-0012 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04889209.).


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637818

ABSTRACT

Why multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) develops after SARS-CoV-2 infection in a subset of children is unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant virus-specific T cell responses contribute to MIS-C pathogenesis. We quantified SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, serologic responses against major viral proteins, and cytokine responses from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with convalescent COVID-19, in children with acute MIS-C, and in healthy controls. Children with MIS-C had significantly lower virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to major SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared with children convalescing from COVID-19. Furthermore, T cell responses in participants with MIS-C were similar to or lower than those in healthy controls. Serologic responses against spike receptor binding domain (RBD), full-length spike, and nucleocapsid were similar among convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting functional B cell responses. Cytokine profiling demonstrated predominant Th1 polarization of CD4+ T cells from children with convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, although cytokine production was reduced in MIS-C. Our findings support a role for constrained induction of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male
12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):755-755, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564902

ABSTRACT

Background A significant burden of disease exists for adults infected with influenza (flu) and SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. However, data are limited comparing outcomes between hospitalized adults infected with these viruses. Methods Over the course of 3 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons, adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions were enrolled from 2 Atlanta area hospitals. For the 2018-19 and 2019-20 seasons, participants were approached in the hospital. If the participant enrolled, nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected and tested using BioFire® FilmArray® respiratory panel. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21 and limitations involving participant contact, only NP standard of care (SOC) swabs were collected. A comprehensive medical chart review was completed for each subject which encompassed data on their hospitalization, past medical history, and vaccination history. Co-infected patients were excluded from the analyses. Results Of the eligible participants, 118 were flu positive (three RSV-influenza co-infections were excluded) and 527 were COVID-19 positive. Median age was lower for the flu cohort at 62 (IQR 56-71) than those with COVID-19 (67, IQR 59-77) (p < 0.0001). Length of stay (LOS) was shorter in flu-infected patients (median 3 d, IQR 2-6), but was longer for COVID-19 patients (median 5 d, IQR 3-10). ICU admission occurred in 20% of those with flu, and among those admitted to the ICU mechanical ventilation (MV) occurred in 12.5%. ICU admission and MV was significantly higher for those with COVID-19, with 28% of patients admitted to the ICU and 47% of those requiring MV. Among patients with COVID-19, 8.9% died. This was significantly higher than that of flu (3.4%) (p=0.008). Hospital discharge occurred more frequently to a nursing home or LTCF with COVID-19 (10.3%) than with flu (0%) (p< 0.0001). Table 1. Breakdown of age, hospitalization course, and discharge disposition for participants diagnosed with influenza or COVID-19 during hospitalization. Conclusion COVID-19 resulted in a longer hospital admission, a greater chance of ICU admission and MV as compared to flu. Additionally, COVID-19 participants had a high rate of discharge to a nursing home/LTCF and a significantly higher risk of death. While the clinical course was not as severe as COVID-19, influenza contributed a significant burden. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel m mber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):752-753, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564762

ABSTRACT

Background The burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization in adults is incompletely understood. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple public health measures (e.g., social distancing, handwashing, masking) to decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission, which could impact RSV-associated hospitalizations. We sought to compare RSV-associated hospitalizations from 2 pre- and one mid-COVID-19 winter viral respiratory seasons. Methods We conducted an IRB-approved prospective surveillance at two Atlanta-area hospitals during the winter respiratory viral seasons from Oct 2018–Apr 2021 for adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions. Adults were eligible if they were residents of an 8 county region surrounding Atlanta, Georgia. Those with symptoms > 14 days were excluded. Standard of care test results were included. Asymptomatic adults ≥ 50 years of age were enrolled as controls in Seasons 1 and 2. Nasopharyngeal swabs from cases and controls were tested for RSV using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). We compared the demographic features and outcomes of RSV+ cases and controls. Results RSV was detected in 71/2,728 (2.6%) hospitalized adults with ARI, CHF, or COPD and 4/466 (0.9%) controls. In Season 1, RSV occurred in 5.9% (35/596 patients), in Season 2 3.6% (35/970 patients), but in only 0.09% (1/1,162 patients) in Season 3 (P < 0.001 for both seasons). RSV detection in Season 3 was similar to RSV detection among controls during Seasons 1 and 2 (P=0.6). Median age of cases and controls was 67 years (Table 1). Of cases with RSV 11% were admitted to the ICU and two required mechanical ventilation. The majority of hospitalized patients were discharged home (95.8%) with a median length of hospitalization of three days (IQR 2-7). Table 1. Demographic Features and Outcomes Among RSV-Positive Hospitalized Adults. Conclusion Over 3 seasons, RSV was detected in 2.6% of adults admitted to the hospital with ARI, CHF or COPD. The rate of RSV dramatically declined during the 2020-21 winter respiratory viral season, likely due to public health measures implemented in response to COVID-19. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel member)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

14.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):757-758, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564711

ABSTRACT

Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in adults. Influenza is associated with about 490,600 hospitalizations and 34,200 deaths in the US in the 2018-2019 season. The burden of rhinovirus among adults hospitalized with ARI is less well known. We compared the burden of influenza and rhinovirus from 2 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons in hospitalized adults and healthy controls pre-COVID-19 and one season mid-COVID-19 to determine the impact of rhinovirus as a pathogen. Methods From Oct 2018 to Apr 2021, prospective surveillance of adults ≥50 years old admitted with ARI or COPD/CHF exacerbations at any age was conducted at two Atlanta hospitals. Adults were eligible if they lived within an eight-county region around Atlanta and if their symptom duration was < 14 days. In the seasons from Oct 2018 to Mar 2020, asymptomatic adults ≥50 years old were enrolled as controls. Standard of care test results were included and those enrolled contributed nasopharyngeal swabs that were tested for respiratory pathogens using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). Results During the first two seasons, 1566 hospitalized adults were enrolled. Rhinovirus was detected in 7.5% (118) and influenza was detected in 7.7% (121). Rhinovirus was also detected in 2.2% of 466 healthy adult controls while influenza was detected in 0%. During Season 3, the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, influenza declined to 0% of ARI hospitalizations. Rhinovirus also declined (p=0.01) but still accounted for 5.1% of all ARIs screened (Figure 1). Rhinovirus was detected at a greater rate in Season 3 than in asymptomatic controls in the first 2 seasons (p=0.008). In the first two seasons, Influenza was detected in 8.6% (24/276) of those admitted to the ICU. Rhinovirus was detected in 6.1% (17/276) of those admitted to the ICU but declined to 3.1% (8/258) in Season 3. Figure 1. Percent Positive Cases of Influenza and Rhinovirus between Season 1&2 (hospitalized and healthy controls) vs Season 3 (hospitalized) Conclusion Dramatic declines occurred in influenza in adults hospitalized with ARI, CHF, or COPD in Atlanta during the COVID-19 pandemic and with enhanced public health measures. Although rhinovirus declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, it continued to be identified at a rate higher than in historical controls. Additional data are needed to understand the role of rhinovirus in adult ARI, CHF, and COPD exacerbations. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel me ber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 581-582, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510472
16.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1452-1464, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454797

ABSTRACT

There is limited understanding of the viral antibody fingerprint following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 proteome-wide immunoprofiling of children with mild/moderate or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) versus multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children versus hospitalized control patients revealed differential cytokine responses, IgM/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding and avidity. Apart from spike and nucleocapsid, IgG/IgA recognized epitopes in nonstructural protein (NSP) 2, NSP3, NSP12-NSP14 and open reading frame (ORF) 3a-ORF9. Peptides representing epitopes in NSP12, ORF3a and ORF8 demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 serodiagnosis. Antibody-binding kinetics with 24 SARS-CoV-2 proteins revealed antibody parameters that distinguish children with mild/moderate versus severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Antibody avidity to prefusion spike correlated with decreased illness severity and served as a clinical disease indicator. The fusion peptide and heptad repeat 2 region induced SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Thus, we identified SARS-CoV-2 antibody signatures in children associated with disease severity and delineate promising serodiagnostic and virus neutralization targets. These findings might guide the design of serodiagnostic assays, prognostic algorithms, therapeutics and vaccines in this important but understudied population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Epitopes/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Male , Prognosis , Proteome , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
17.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(2): 145-151, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438228

ABSTRACT

This study sought to evaluate the candidacy of plasma osteopontin (OPN) as a biomarker of COVID-19 severity and multisystem inflammatory condition in children (MIS-C) in children. A retrospective analysis of 26 children (0-21 years of age) admitted to Children's Healthcare of Atlanta with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 17 and May 26, 2020 was undertaken. The patients were classified into three categories based on COVID-19 severity levels: asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic (control population, admitted for other non-COVID-19 conditions), mild/moderate, and severe COVID-19. A fourth category of children met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's case definition for MIS-C. Residual blood samples were analyzed for OPN, a marker of inflammation using commercial ELISA kits (R&D), and results were correlated with clinical data. This study demonstrates that OPN levels are significantly elevated in children hospitalized with moderate and severe COVID-19 and MIS-C compared to OPN levels in mild/asymptomatic children. Further, OPN differentiated among clinical levels of severity in COVID-19, while other inflammatory markers including maximum erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and ferritin, minimum lymphocyte and platelet counts, soluble interleukin-2R, and interleukin-6 did not. We conclude OPN is a potential biomarker of COVID-19 severity and MIS-C in children that may have future clinical utility. The specificity and positive predictive value of this marker for COVID-19 and MIS-C are areas for future larger prospective research studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteopontin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Young Adult
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0045821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398599

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a global pandemic with over 152 million cases and 3.19 million deaths reported by early May 2021. Understanding the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical to determining the burden of infection and disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) and transmission dynamics. We developed a capture IgM assay because it should have better sensitivity and specificity than the commonly used indirect assay. Here, we report the development and performance of a capture IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a companion indirect IgG ELISA for the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S. We found that among the IgM ELISAs, the S ELISA was positive in 76% of 55 serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, the RBD ELISA was positive in 55% of samples, and the N ELISA was positive in 15% of samples. The companion indirect IgG ELISAs were positive for S in 89% of the 55 serum samples, RBD in 78%, and N in 85%. While the specificities for IgM RBD, S, and N ELISAs and IgG S and RBD ELISAs were 97% to 100%, the specificity of the N IgG ELISA was lower (89%). RBD-specific IgM antibodies became undetectable by 3 to 6 months, and S IgM reached low levels at 6 months. The corresponding IgG S, RBD, and N antibodies persisted with some decreases in levels over this time period. These capture IgM ELISAs and the companion indirect IgG ELISAs should enhance serologic studies of SARS-CoV-2 infections. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has inflicted tremendous loss of lives, overwhelmed health care systems, and disrupted all aspects of life worldwide since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Detecting current and past infection by PCR or serology is important to understanding and controlling SARS-CoV-2. With increasing prevalence of past infection or vaccination, IgG antibodies are less helpful in diagnosing a current infection. IgM antibodies indicate a more recent infection and can supplement PCR diagnosis. We report an alternative method, capture IgM, to detect serum IgM antibodies, which should be more sensitive and specific than most currently used methods. We describe this capture IgM assay and a companion indirect IgG assay for the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), and receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins. These assays can add value to diagnostic and serologic studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of pre-existing endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity on SARS-CoV-2 serologic and clinical responses are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effects of prior exposure to HCoV Betacoronavirus HKU1 spike protein on serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after intramuscular administration in mice. We also sought to understand the baseline seroprevalence of HKU1 spike antibodies in healthy children and to measure their correlation with SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies in children hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). METHODS: Groups of 5 mice were injected intramuscularly with two doses of alum-adjuvanted HKU1 spike followed by SARS-CoV-2 spike; or the reciprocal regimen of SARS-Cov-2 spike followed by HKU1 spike. Sera collected 21 days following each injection was analyzed for IgG antibodies to HKU1 spike, SARS-CoV-2 spike, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Sera from children hospitalized with acute COVID-19, MIS-C or healthy controls (n = 14 per group) were analyzed for these same antibodies. RESULTS: Mice primed with SARS-CoV-2 spike and boosted with HKU1 spike developed high titers of SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies; however, mice primed with HKU1 spike and boosted with SARS-CoV-2 spike were unable to mount neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. HKU1 spike antibodies were detected in all children with acute COVID-19, MIS-C, and healthy controls. Although children with MIS-C had significantly higher HKU1 spike titers than healthy children (GMT 37239 vs. 7551, P = 0.012), these titers correlated positively with both SARS-CoV-2 binding (r = 0.7577, P<0.001) and neutralizing (r = 0.6201, P = 0.001) antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Prior murine exposure to HKU1 spike protein completely impeded the development of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with original antigenic sin. In contrast, the presence of HKU1 spike IgG antibodies in children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C was not associated with diminished neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
20.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356908

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)­competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
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