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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e14, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1812002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Compare the diagnostic properties of five case definitions of suspected COVID-19 that were used or proposed in Chile during the first eight months of the pandemic. METHODS: An analysis was done of the diagnostic properties (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of three case definitions of suspected COVID-19 used in Chile between March and October 2020, as well as two alternative proposed definitions. The sample was 2,019 people with known results for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop criterion 5, optimizing sensitivity and specificity values. Multifactor logistic regression was used to explore the association between demographic variables, symptoms and signs, and PCR positivity. Different positivity scenarios were analyzed and ROC curves were compared. RESULTS: The presence of anosmia (OR = 8.00; CI95%: 5.34-11.99), fever (OR = 2.15; CI95%: 1.28-3.59), and having been in close contact with a person sick with COVID-19 (OR = 2.89; CI95%: 2.16-3.87) were associated with a positive PCR result. According to the analysis of the ROC curve, criterion 5 had the highest capacity for discrimination, although there were no significant differences with the other four criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Criterion 5-based on anosmia, close contact with people with COVID-19, and fever as sufficient unique elements-was the most sensitive in identifying suspected cases of COVID-19, a key aspect in controlling the spread of the pandemic.


OBJETIVO: Comparar as características diagnósticas de cinco critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados ou propostos no Chile nos oito primeiros meses de pandemia. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as características diagnósticas (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo) de três critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados no Chile entre março e outubro de 2020 e de duas alternativas propostas para definição de caso. A amostra do estudo consistiu 2 019 pessoas com resultados conhecidos no exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar o critério 5, uma regressão logística com método stepwise foi realizada otimizando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. A associação entre variáveis demográficas, sintomas e sinais e resultado positivo no exame de PCR foi testada em um modelo de regressão logística multifatorial. Situações diferentes de resultado positivo foram testadas com uma análise comparativa das curvas ROC. RESULTADOS: Presença de anosmia (OR 8,00; IC95% 5,34­11,99), febre (OR 2,15; IC95% 1,28­3,59) e contato próximo anterior com uma pessoa com COVID-19 (OR 2,89; IC95% 2,16­3,87) foram associados a um resultado positivo no exame de PCR. De acordo com a análise das curvas ROC, o critério 5 demonstrou maior capacidade discriminatória, apesar de não existir diferença significativa com os outros quatro critérios. CONCLUSÃO: O critério 5 ­ presença de anosmia, febre e contato próximo com uma pessoa com COVID-19 como elementos únicos e suficientes ­ demonstrou maior sensibilidade para identificar casos suspeitos de COVID-19, o que é fundamental para controlar a disseminação da pandemia.

2.
Journal of Global Health ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801608

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for health research that would have the potential to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Methods The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method was used to identify COVID-19-related research priorities. All ISoGH members were invited to participate. Seventy-nine experts in clinical, translational, and population research contributed 192 research questions for consideration. Fifty-two experts then scored those questions based on five pre-defined criteria that were selected for this exercise: 1) feasibility and answerability;2) potential for burden reduction;3) potential for a paradigm shift;4) potential for translation and implementation;and 5) impact on equity. Results Among the top 10 research priorities, research questions related to vaccination were prominent: health care system access barriers to equitable uptake of COVID-19 vaccination (ranked 1st), determinants of vaccine hesitancy (4th), development and evaluation of effective interventions to decrease vaccine hesitancy (5th), and vaccination impacts on vulnerable population/s (6th). Health care delivery questions also ranked highly, including: effective strategies to manage COVID-19 globally and in LMICs (2nd) and integrating health care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs (3rd). Additionally, the assessment of COVID-19 patients’ needs in rural areas of LMICs was ranked 7th, and studying the leading socioeconomic determinants and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs using multi-faceted approaches was ranked 8th. The remaining questions in the top 10 were: clarifying paediatric case-fatality rates (CFR) in LMICs and identifying effective strategies for community engagement against COVID-19 in different LMIC contexts. Interpretation Health policy and systems research to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake and equitable access to care are urgently needed, especially for rural, vulnerable, and/or marginalised populations. This research should occur in parallel with studies that will identify approaches to minimise vaccine hesitancy and effectively integrate care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs. ISoGH calls on the funders of health research in LMICs to consider the urgency and priority of this research during the COVID-19 pandemic and support studies that could make a positive difference for the populations of LMICs.

3.
Sustainability ; 13(18):10081, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1410960

ABSTRACT

Tourism is often seen as the ‘golden ticket’ for the development of many islands. The current COVID-19 pandemic, however, has ground global tourism to a halt. In particular, islands that depend heavily on tourist inflows—including mass-tourism islands, and small island developing states (SIDS)—have seen their revenues diminish significantly, and poverty rates increasing. Some alternative-tourism islands have fared better, as they have focused on providing personalized, nature-based experiences to mostly domestic tourists. This article focuses on the experiences of mass-tourism islands, SIDS, and alternative-tourism islands during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offers possible post-pandemic scenarios, as well as recommendations for sustainable island tourism development. Although the pandemic has largely had a negative impact on the tourism sector, this is a unique opportunity for many islands to review the paradigm of tourism development. In this newly emerging world, and under a still very uncertain future scenario, the quadriptych of sustainability is more important than ever. Responsible governance and management of islands’ natural resources and their tourism activities, addressing climate change impacts, the diversification of islands’ economies, and the promotion of innovative and personalized tourist experiences are all necessary steps towards increasing islands’ resilience in case of future economic downturn or health- and environment-related crises.

4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e14, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Compare the diagnostic properties of five case definitions of suspected COVID-19 that were used or proposed in Chile during the first eight months of the pandemic. METHODS: An analysis was done of the diagnostic properties (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of three case definitions of suspected COVID-19 used in Chile between March and October 2020, as well as two alternative proposed definitions. The sample was 2,019 people with known results for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop criterion 5, optimizing sensitivity and specificity values. Multifactor logistic regression was used to explore the association between demographic variables, symptoms and signs, and PCR positivity. Different positivity scenarios were analyzed and ROC curves were compared. RESULTS: The presence of anosmia (OR = 8.00; CI95%: 5.34-11.99), fever (OR = 2.15; CI95%: 1.28-3.59), and having been in close contact with a person sick with COVID-19 (OR = 2.89; CI95%: 2.16-3.87) were associated with a positive PCR result. According to the analysis of the ROC curve, criterion 5 had the highest capacity for discrimination, although there were no significant differences with the other four criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Criterion 5-based on anosmia, close contact with people with COVID-19, and fever as sufficient unique elements-was the most sensitive in identifying suspected cases of COVID-19, a key aspect in controlling the spread of the pandemic.


OBJETIVO: Comparar as características diagnósticas de cinco critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados ou propostos no Chile nos oito primeiros meses de pandemia. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as características diagnósticas (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo) de três critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados no Chile entre março e outubro de 2020 e de duas alternativas propostas para definição de caso. A amostra do estudo consistiu 2 019 pessoas com resultados conhecidos no exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar o critério 5, uma regressão logística com método stepwise foi realizada otimizando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. A associação entre variáveis demográficas, sintomas e sinais e resultado positivo no exame de PCR foi testada em um modelo de regressão logística multifatorial. Situações diferentes de resultado positivo foram testadas com uma análise comparativa das curvas ROC. RESULTADOS: Presença de anosmia (OR 8,00; IC95% 5,34­11,99), febre (OR 2,15; IC95% 1,28­3,59) e contato próximo anterior com uma pessoa com COVID-19 (OR 2,89; IC95% 2,16­3,87) foram associados a um resultado positivo no exame de PCR. De acordo com a análise das curvas ROC, o critério 5 demonstrou maior capacidade discriminatória, apesar de não existir diferença significativa com os outros quatro critérios. CONCLUSÃO: O critério 5 ­ presença de anosmia, febre e contato próximo com uma pessoa com COVID-19 como elementos únicos e suficientes ­ demonstrou maior sensibilidade para identificar casos suspeitos de COVID-19, o que é fundamental para controlar a disseminação da pandemia.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 131, 2020 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disabled people are particularly exposed to the risks of COVID-19, as well as to the measures taken to address it, and their impact. The aim of the study was to examine the disability-inclusiveness of government responses to COVID-19 in four South American Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru. METHODS: We conducted documentary research, using framework analysis to analyse reports, legislation, decrees, and other official documents that communicated measures taken in response to the pandemic, published from February 1st until May 22nd, 2020. We included documents reporting measures that affected disabled people either directly (measures specifically designed for disabled people) or indirectly (measures for the general population). We developed an analytical framework based on recommendations for disability-inclusive response to COVID-19 published by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribean, the World Health Organisation, and other international organisations. RESULTS: We analysed 72 documents. The findings highlight that while some positive measures were taken, the needs of disabled people were not fully considered. Several countries published recommendations for a disability-inclusive response to COVID-19, without ensuring their translation to practice. All countries took at least some steps to ensure access to financial support, health, and education for disabled people, but at the same time they also implemented policies that had a detrimental impact on disabled people. The populations that are most exposed to the impacts of COVID-19, including disabled people living in institutional care, were protected in several cases only by recommendations rather by legislation. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how the official government responses taken by four countries in the region - while positive, in several aspects - do not fully address the needs of disabled people, thus further disadvantaging them. In order to ensure response to COVID - 19 is disability inclusive, it is necessary to translate recommendations to practice, consider disabled people both in mainstream policy and in disability-specific measures, and focus on the long-term reconstruction phase.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disabled Persons , Government , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Policy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , South America/epidemiology
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