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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 16: 100354, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882324

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of self-reported symptom burden during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated factors including sex differences. Methods: All Danish adolescents aged 15-18 years with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 2020 and July 2021 were invited to participate. A survey covered the initial four weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and included questions regarding 17 symptoms associated with acute COVID-19, symptom burden and medical history. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Findings: A total of 24,315 adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 infection were invited and 6630 (27.3%) completed the questionnaire. The median age was 17.6 years, and 58.4% (n = 3873) were female. No symptoms were reported by 33.8% (n = 2241), mild perceived symptom burden by 57.2%(n = 3775), and severe symptom burden by 9.0 % (n = 594). Two thirds (n = 2999) of the symptomatic participants reported a symptom duration of 1-10 days. The most prevalent symptoms included headaches 39.2% (n = 2597), a reduced sense of smell 36.2% (n = 2398), cough 31.6% (n = 2093), sore throat 31.1% (n = 2063), and a reduced sense of taste 31.1% (n = 2062). Adolescents at the age of 18 years had higher odds of reporting ≥6 symptoms OR1.47 (95%CI, 1.23-1.76), p < 0.0001 and adolescents 18+ years old had higher odds of reporting a severe symptom burden OR1.98 (95%CI, 1.43-2.73) compared to the 15years old adolescents. A history of OCD/anxiety/depression was associated with reporting ≥6 symptoms OR 1.67 (95%CI, 1.34-2.09), p < 0.0001 and a history of allergy and OCD/anxiety/depression reporting severe symptom burden OR 1.64 (95%CI, 1.35-1.99), p < 0.0001 and OR 1.75 (95%CI, 1.28-2.36), p = 0.0004. Females reported more symptoms than males; median of three (IQR 0-6) vs. a median of two (IQR 0-4) symptoms, p < 0.0001. Interpretation: Two in three experienced symptoms and the majority reported mild symptom burden. Headache, a reduced sense of smell and taste, cough and sore throat were most common. Female sex, asthma and previous Epstein-Barr virus were associated with more symptoms and higher symptom burden. Funding: The study was funded by the AP Møller Foundation. The research was investigator initiated. The study funder played no role in the study.

2.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(4): 240-248, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many adolescents have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic either directly by being infected with the virus or indirectly by lockdowns and restrictions influencing normal living. We aimed to investigate health, including symptoms of long COVID, in adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with a control group. METHODS: LongCOVIDKidsDK was a national, cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark, which included SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls. All Danish adolescents aged 15-18 years with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during the period Jan 1, 2020, to July 12, 2021, and a control group matched (1:4) by age and sex were sent a survey from July 20, 2021. Participants had until Sept 15, 2021, to respond. Symptoms associated with COVID-19, school attendance, and health-related quality of life were investigated using ancillary questions and validated questionnaires (Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory [PedsQL] and Children's Somatic Symptoms Inventory-24 [CSSI-24]). Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04786353. FINDINGS: 24 315 adolescents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (case group) and 97 257 matched controls were invited to participate. 3013 matched controls were excluded because of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. 6630 (27·3%) responded in the case group and 21 640 (22·3%) responded and were eligible to participate in the control group. Across both groups, median age was 17·6 years (IQR 16·4-18·5), 16 277 (57·6%) of 28 270 responders were female, and 11 993 (42·4%) were male. Participants in the case group had greater odds of having at least one long COVID symptom lasting at least 2 months compared with the control group (3159 [61·9%] vs 12 340 [57·0%], odds ratio 1·22 [95% CI 1·15-1·30]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group reported significantly lower symptom scores (ie, less somatic distress) on the CSSI-24 than in the control group: mean 10·7 (SD 11·4, median 7·0 [IQR 2·0-15·0]) versus 11·9 (10·6, 9·0 [4·0-17·0]; p<0·0001). Participants in the case group had better quality of life scores on the PedsQL than in the control group: physical functioning mean score 88·7 (SD 13·9, median 93·8 [IQR 84·4-100·0]) versus 86·5 (14·3, 90·6 [81·3-96·9]; p<0·0001); emotional functioning 77·1 (20·3, 80·0 [65·0-95·0]) versus 71·7 (21·4, 75·0 [60·0-90·0]; p<0·0001); social functioning 93·1 (12·5, 100·0 [90·0-100·0]) versus 88·4 (16·2, 95·0 [80·0-100·0]; p<0·0001); and school functioning 66·9 (22·5, 65·0 [60·0-85·0]) versus 62·9 (22·1, 65·0 [50·0-80·0]; p<0·0001). More participants in the case group than in the control group reported 16 or more sick days (1205 [18·2%] vs 2518 [11·6%]; p<0·0001) and 16 or more days of school absence (695 [10·5%] vs 1777 [8·2%]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Participants with SARS-CoV-2-positive tests had more long-lasting symptoms and sick leave, whereas participants in the control group had more short-lasting symptoms and worse quality of life. Knowledge of long COVID in adolescents is important to guide clinical recognition and management of this condition. FUNDING: AP Møller and Chastine McKinney Møller Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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