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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVIH-study is a prospective SARS-CoV-2 vaccination study in 1154 people with HIV (PWH), of whom 14% showed a reduced or absent antibody response after primary vaccination. We evaluated whether an additional vaccination boosts immune responses in these hyporesponders. METHODS: Consenting hyporesponders received an additional 100µg mRNA-1273 vaccination. The primary endpoint was the increase in antibodies 28 days thereafter. Secondary endpoints were the correlation between participant characteristics and antibody response, levels of neutralizing antibodies, S-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, and reactogenicity. RESULTS: Of the 66 participants, 40 previously received two doses ChAdOx1-S, 22 two doses BNT162b2, and four a single dose Ad26.COV2.S. The median age was 63[IQR:60-66], 86% were male, pre-vaccination CD4+ T-cell count was median 650/µL[IQR:423-941] and 96% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL. The mean S1-specific antibody level increased from 35 BAU/mL (95%CI:24-46) to 4317 BAU/mL (95%CI:3275-5360) post-vaccination (p < 0.0001). Of all participants, 97% showed an adequate response (>300 BAU/mL) and the 45 antibody negative participants all seroconverted (>33.8 BAU/mL). A significant increase in the proportion of PWH with detectable ancestral S-specific CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.04) and S-specific B-cells (p = 0.02) was observed. CONCLUSION: An additional mRNA-1273 vaccination induced a robust serological response in 97% of PWH with a hyporesponse after primary vaccination.

3.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
4.
iScience ; 26(1): 105873, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165428

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic services for tuberculosis (TB) are not sufficiently accessible in low-resource settings, where most cases occur, which was aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Early diagnosis of pulmonary TB can reduce transmission. Current TB-diagnostics rely on detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in sputum requiring costly, time-consuming methods, and trained staff. In this study, quantitative lateral flow (LF) assays were used to measure levels of seven host proteins in sera from pre-COVID-19 TB patients diagnosed in Europe and latently Mtb-infected individuals (LTBI), and from COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. Analysis of host proteins showed significantly lower levels in LTBI versus TB (AUC:0 · 94) and discriminated healthy individuals from COVID-19 patients (0 · 99) and severe COVID-19 from TB. Importantly, these host proteins allowed treatment monitoring of both respiratory diseases. This study demonstrates the potential of non-sputum LF assays as adjunct diagnostics and treatment monitoring for COVID-19 and TB based on quantitative detection of multiple host biomarkers.

5.
Respir Med Res ; 82: 100973, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether COVID-19 leads to persistent impaired pulmonary function, fibrotic-like abnormalities or psychological symptoms 12 months after discharge and whether severely ill patients (ICU admission) recover differently than moderately ill patients. METHODS: This single-centre cohort study followed adult COVID-19 survivors for a period of one year after discharge. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months after discharge and were psychologically evaluated at 6 weeks and 12 months. Computed tomography (CT) was performed after 3 months and 12 months. RESULTS: 66 patients were analysed, their median age was 60.5 (IQR: 54-69) years, 46 (70%) patients were male. 38 (58%) patients had moderate disease and 28 (42%) patients had severe disease. Most patients had spirometric values within normal range after 12 months of follow-up. 12 (23%) patients still had an impaired lung diffusion after 12 months. Impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity was associated with residual CT abnormalities (OR 5.1,CI-95: 1.2-22.2), shortness of breath (OR 7.0, CI-95: 1.6-29.7) and with functional limitations (OR 5.8, CI-95: 1.4-23.8). Ground-glass opacities resolved in most patients during follow-up. Resorption of reticulation, bronchiectasis and curvilinear bands was rare and independent of disease severity. 81% of severely ill patients and 37% of moderately ill patients showed residual abnormalities after 12 months (OR 8.1, CI-95: 2.5-26.4). A minority of patients had symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and cognitive failure during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Some patients still had impaired lung diffusion 12 months after discharge and fibrotic-like residual abnormalities were notably prevalent, especially in severely ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Patient Discharge , Patient Acuity , Disease Progression
7.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009959

ABSTRACT

Virus-specific cellular and humoral responses are major determinants for protection from critical illness after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the magnitude of the contribution of each of the components to viral clearance remains unclear. Here, we studied the timing of viral clearance in relation to 122 immune parameters in 102 hospitalised patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 in a longitudinal design. Delayed viral clearance was associated with more severe disease and was associated with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific (neutralising) antibodies over time, increased numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and a range of pro-inflammatory cyto-/chemokines illustrating ongoing, partially Th2 dominating, immune activation. In contrast, early viral clearance and less critical illness correlated with the peak of neutralising antibodies, higher levels of CD4 T cells, and in particular naïve CD4+ T cells, suggesting their role in early control of SARS-CoV-2 possibly by proving appropriate B cell help. Higher counts of naïve CD4+ T cells also correlated with lower levels of MIF, IL-9, and TNF-beta, suggesting an indirect role in averting prolonged virus-induced tissue damage. Collectively, our data show that naïve CD4+ T cell play a critical role in rapid viral T cell control, obviating aberrant antibody and cytokine profiles and disease deterioration. These data may help in guiding risk stratification for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(9): 1278-1285, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic increases healthcare worker (HCW) absenteeism. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may provide non-specific protection against respiratory infections through enhancement of trained immunity. We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on HCW absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HCWs exposed to COVID-19 patients in nine Dutch hospitals were randomized to BCG vaccine or placebo in a 1:1 ratio, and followed for one year using a mobile phone application. The primary endpoint was the self-reported number of days of unplanned absenteeism for any reason. Secondary endpoints included documented COVID-19, acute respiratory symptoms or fever. This was an investigator-funded study, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03987919). RESULTS: In March/April 2020, 1511 HCWs were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 357 person-days (interquartile range [IQR], 351 to 361). Unplanned absenteeism for any reason was observed in 2.8% of planned working days in the BCG group and 2.7% in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 0.94; 95% credible interval, 0.78-1.15). Cumulative incidences of documented COVID-19 were 14.2% in the BCG and 15.2% in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-1.24). First episodes of self-reported acute respiratory symptoms or fever occurred in 490 (66.2%) and 443 (60.2%) participants, respectively (aHR: 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.28). Thirty-one serious adverse events were reported (13 after BCG, 18 after placebo), none considered related to study medication. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, BCG-vaccination of HCW exposed to COVID-19 patients did not reduce unplanned absenteeism nor documented COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium bovis , Absenteeism , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103957, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) effector functions are impacted by the structure of fragment crystallizable (Fc) tail-linked N-glycans. Low fucosylation levels on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein-specific IgG1 has been described as a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may lead to activation of macrophages via immune complexes thereby promoting inflammatory responses, altogether suggesting involvement of IgG1 Fc glycosylation modulated immune mechanisms in COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective, observational single center cohort study, IgG1 Fc glycosylation was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry following affinity capturing from serial plasma samples of 159 SARS-CoV-2 infected hospitalized patients. FINDINGS: At baseline close to disease onset, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation was highly skewed when compared to total plasma IgG1. A rapid, general reduction in glycosylation skewing was observed during the disease course. Low anti-S IgG1 galactosylation and sialylation as well as high bisection were early hallmarks of disease severity, whilst high galactosylation and sialylation and low bisection were found in patients with low disease severity. In line with these observations, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation correlated with various inflammatory markers. INTERPRETATION: Association of low galactosylation, sialylation as well as high bisection with disease severity and inflammatory markers suggests that further studies are needed to understand how anti-S IgG1 glycosylation may contribute to disease mechanism and to evaluate its biomarker potential. FUNDING: This project received funding from the European Commission's Horizon2020 research and innovation program for H2020-MSCA-ITN IMforFUTURE, under grant agreement number 721815, and supported by Crowdfunding Wake Up To Corona, organized by the Leiden University Fund.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Glycosylation , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(4): e570-e573, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740334

ABSTRACT

Despite tremendous efforts, worldwide COVID-19 vaccination coverage is lagging. Dose-sparing strategies for COVID-19 vaccines can increase vaccine availability to address the global crisis. Several clinical trials evaluating dose sparing are currently underway. However, to rapidly provide solid scientific justification for different dose-sparing strategies, joint coordinated action involving both public and private parties is needed. In this Viewpoint, we provide examples of approaches to vaccine dose-sparing that have previously been evaluated in clinical trials to improve vaccine availability and reflect on the origin of their funding. With a focus on the current COVID-19 pandemic, we stress the need for expedited testing of vaccine dose-sparing strategies in endemic or epidemic infectious diseases. However, we argue that the establishment of a mechanism through which dose-sparing opportunities are systematically identified, scientifically tested, and ultimately implemented will prove to be valuable beyond the current pandemic for infectious diseases product development and pandemic preparedness in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
11.
Gut ; 71(4): 746-756, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Immunosuppressive agents are known to interfere with T and/or B lymphocytes, which are required to mount an adequate serologic response. Therefore, we aim to investigate the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in liver transplant (LT) recipients after COVID-19. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre case-control study, analysing antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein, spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and their neutralising activity in LT recipients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19-LT) compared with immunocompetent patients (COVID-19-immunocompetent) and LT recipients without COVID-19 symptoms (non-COVID-19-LT). RESULTS: Overall, 35 LT recipients were included in the COVID-19-LT cohort. 35 and 70 subjects fulfilling the matching criteria were assigned to the COVID-19-immunocompetent and non-COVID-19-LT cohorts, respectively. We showed that LT recipients, despite immunosuppression and less symptoms, mounted a detectable antinucleocapsid antibody titre in 80% of the cases, although significantly lower compared with the COVID-19-immunocompetent cohort (3.73 vs 7.36 index level, p<0.001). When analysing anti-S antibody response, no difference in positivity rate was found between the COVID-19-LT and COVID-19-immunocompetent cohorts (97.1% vs 100%, p=0.314). Functional antibody testing showed neutralising activity in 82.9% of LT recipients (vs 100% in COVID-19-immunocompetent cohort, p=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the humoral response of LT recipients is only slightly lower than expected, compared with COVID-19 immunocompetent controls. Testing for anti-S antibodies alone can lead to an overestimation of the neutralising ability in LT recipients. Altogether, routine antibody testing against separate SARS-CoV-2 antigens and functional testing show that the far majority of LT patients are capable of mounting an adequate antibody response with neutralising ability.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 23-32, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585822

ABSTRACT

Systemic immune cell dynamics during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are extensively documented, but these are less well studied in the (upper) respiratory tract, where severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates1-6. Here, we characterized nasal and systemic immune cells in individuals with COVID-19 who were hospitalized or convalescent and compared the immune cells to those seen in healthy donors. We observed increased nasal granulocytes, monocytes, CD11c+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD4+ T effector cells during acute COVID-19. The mucosal proinflammatory populations positively associated with peripheral blood human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRlow monocytes, CD38+PD1+CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells and plasmablasts. However, there was no general lymphopenia in nasal mucosa, unlike in peripheral blood. Moreover, nasal neutrophils negatively associated with oxygen saturation levels in blood. Following convalescence, nasal immune cells mostly normalized, except for CD127+ granulocytes and CD38+CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells persisted at least 2 months after viral clearance in the nasal mucosa, indicating that COVID-19 has both transient and long-term effects on upper respiratory tract immune responses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nose/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Granulocytes/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/cytology , Nasopharynx/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
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