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2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib and dexamethasone have randomised trials supporting their use for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. We assessed the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir versus dexamethasone plus remdesivir in preventing progression to mechanical ventilation or death in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial, patients were enrolled at 67 trial sites in the USA (60 sites), South Korea (two sites), Mexico (two sites), Singapore (two sites), and Japan (one site). Hospitalised adults (≥18 years) with COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen administered by low-flow (≤15 L/min), high-flow (>15 L/min), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation modalities who met the study eligibility criteria (male or non-pregnant female adults ≥18 years old with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either baricitinib, remdesivir, and placebo, or dexamethasone, remdesivir, and placebo using a permuted block design. Randomisation was stratified by study site and baseline ordinal score at enrolment. All patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (or matching oral placebo) for a maximum of 14 days or dexamethasone (or matching intravenous placebo) for a maximum of 10 days. The primary outcome was the difference in mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 between the two treatment groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the as-treated population, comprising all participants who received one dose of the study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04640168. FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2020, and April 13, 2021, 1047 patients were assessed for eligibility. 1010 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 516 (51%) to baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo and 494 (49%) to dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo. The mean age of the patients was 58·3 years (SD 14·0) and 590 (58%) of 1010 patients were male. 588 (58%) of 1010 patients were White, 188 (19%) were Black, 70 (7%) were Asian, and 18 (2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native. 347 (34%) of 1010 patients were Hispanic or Latino. Mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 was similar between the study groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 87·0% [95% CI 83·7 to 89·6] in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 87·6% [84·2 to 90·3] in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group; risk difference 0·6 [95% CI -3·6 to 4·8]; p=0·91). The odds ratio for improved status in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group compared with the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group was 1·01 (95% CI 0·80 to 1·27). At least one adverse event occurred in 149 (30%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 179 (37%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·5% [1·6 to 13·3]; p=0·014). 21 (4%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group had at least one treatment-related adverse event versus 49 (10%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 6·0% [2·8 to 9·3]; p=0·00041). Severe or life-threatening grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 143 (28%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 174 (36%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·7% [1·8 to 13·4]; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen by low-flow, high-flow, or non-invasive ventilation, baricitinib plus remdesivir and dexamethasone plus remdesivir resulted in similar mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29, but dexamethasone was associated with significantly more adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, and severe or life-threatening adverse events. A more individually tailored choice of immunomodulation now appears possible, where side-effect profile, ease of administration, cost, and patient comorbidities can all be considered. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334439

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for a third dose of vaccine. We evaluated early safety and immunogenicity after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, and Delta variants that were similar or greater than peak responses after the second dose. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased to similar levels as after the second dose. A third mRNA vaccination was well tolerated and generated robust humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334405

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for booster doses. We evaluated safety and serological and cellular immunogenicity through 6 months after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, Delta and Omicron variants that persisted through 6 months post-boost, particularly after administration of Beta-containing vaccines. Spike-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells increased to levels similar to those following the second dose. Boost vaccination induced broad and durable humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334154

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 mutations conferring escape from neutralizing antibodies can arise in immunocompromised patients with prolonged infection, but the conditions that facilitate immune escape are still not fully understood. Methods We characterized endogenous immune responses, within-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution, and autologous neutralization of the viral variants that arose in five immunocompromised patients with prolonged infection and B cell deficiencies. Results In two patients treated with the monoclonal antibody bamlanivimab, viral resistance to autologous serum arose early and persisted for several months, accompanied by ongoing evolution in the spike protein. These patients exhibited deficiencies in both T and B cell arms, and one patient succumbed to disease. In contrast, we did not observe spike mutations in immunologically important regions in patients who did not receive exogenous antibodies or who received convalescent plasma and had intact T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions Our results underscore the potential importance of multiple factors – the absence of an effective endogenous immune response, persistent virus replication, and selective pressure such as single-agent bamlanivimab – in promoting the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutations associated with immune evasion. These findings highlight the need for larger clinical studies in immunocompromised populations to better understand the ramifications of different therapies. Our results also confirm that patients with B cell deficiencies can elicit effector T cells and may suggest an important role for T cells in controlling infection, which is relevant to vaccines and therapeutics.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795348

ABSTRACT

Vaccine clinical trials have been essential to develop effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The challenges of supply chain disruptions, infection control, study designs, and participant factors that affect trial procedures are reviewed, with specific solutions to streamline the clinical trial process.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740827

ABSTRACT

Our case report describes the rapid detection of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant using a combination of targeted spike SNP PCR and viral genome sequencing. This case occurred in a fully vaccinated and boosted returning traveler with mild symptoms who was identified through community surveillance rather than presentation for clinical care.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715825

ABSTRACT

While the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines was rapid, time to development and implementation challenges remain that may impact the response to future pandemics. Trained immunity via bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination (an antigen agnostic strategy) offers a potential intervention against future novel pathogens via an existing, safe, and widely distributed vaccine to protect vulnerable populations and preserve health system capacity while targeted vaccines are developed and implemented.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687072

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that White and non-Hispanic individuals are overrepresented in clinical trials. The development of new vaccines and drugs, however, necessitates that clinical research trials include representative participants, particularly in light of evidence showing that underrepresented minorities may have a different response to certain medications and vaccines. Racial and ethnic disparities among clinical trials are multilayered and complex, and this requires action. The results of this study indicate that significant racial and ethnic disparities consistently exist among the most recent early SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials as compared to the pandemic H1N1 vaccine clinical trials of 2009. New strategies, policies, training programs, and reforms are required to address these disparities among clinical trials.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(5): 636-648, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated our SARS-CoV-2 prefusion spike recombinant protein vaccine (CoV2 preS dTM) with different adjuvants, unadjuvanted, and in a one-injection and two-injection dosing schedule in a previous phase 1-2 study. Based on interim results from that study, we selected a two-injection schedule and the AS03 adjuvant for further clinical development. However, lower than expected antibody responses, particularly in older adults, and higher than expected reactogenicity after the second vaccination were observed. In the current study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an optimised formulation of CoV2 preS dTM adjuvanted with AS03 to inform progression to phase 3 clinical trial. METHODS: This phase 2, randomised, parallel-group, dose-ranging study was done in adults (≥18 years old), including those with pre-existing medical conditions, those who were immunocompromised (except those with recent organ transplant or chemotherapy) and those with a potentially increased risk for severe COVID-19, at 20 clinical research centres in the USA and Honduras. Women who were pregnant or lactating or, for those of childbearing potential, not using an effective method of contraception or abstinence, and those who had received a COVID-19 vaccine, were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using an interactive response technology system, with stratification by age (18-59 years and ≥60 years), rapid serodiagnostic test result (positive or negative), and high-risk medical conditions (yes or no), to receive two injections (day 1 and day 22) of 5 7mu;g (low dose), 10 7mu;g (medium dose), or 15 7mu;g (high dose) CoV2 preS dTM antigen with fixed AS03 content. All participants and outcome assessors were masked to group assignment; unmasked study staff involved in vaccine preparation were not involved in safety outcome assessments. All laboratory staff performing the assays were masked to treatment. The primary safety objective was to describe the safety profile in all participants, for each candidate vaccine formulation. Safety endpoints were evaluated for all randomised participants who received at least one dose of the study vaccine (safety analysis set), and are presented here for the interim study period (up to day 43). The primary immunogenicity objective was to describe the neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant 14 days after the second vaccination (day 36) in participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive who received both injections, provided samples at day 1 and day 36, did not have protocol deviations, and did not receive an authorised COVID-19 vaccine before day 36. Neutralising antibodies were measured using a pseudovirus neutralisation assay and are presented here up to 14 days after the second dose. As a secondary immunogenicity objective, we assessed neutralising antibodies in non-naive participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04762680) and is closed to new participants for the cohort reported here. FINDINGS: Of 722 participants enrolled and randomly assigned between Feb 24, 2021, and March 8, 2021, 721 received at least one injection (low dose=240, medium dose=239, and high dose=242). The proportion of participants reporting at least one solicited adverse reaction (injection site or systemic) in the first 7 days after any vaccination was similar between treatment groups (217 [91%] of 238 in the low-dose group, 213 [90%] of 237 in the medium-dose group, and 218 [91%] of 239 in the high-dose group); these adverse reactions were transient, were mostly mild to moderate in intensity, and occurred at a higher frequency and intensity after the second vaccination. Four participants reported immediate unsolicited adverse events; two (one each in the low-dose group and medium-dose group) were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related and two (one each in the low-dose and high-dose groups) were considered unrelated. Five participants reported seven vaccine-related medically attended adverse events (two in the low-dose group, one in the medium-dose group, and four in the high-dose group). No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no adverse events of special interest were reported. Among participants naive to SARS-CoV-2 at day 36, 158 (98%) of 162 in the low-dose group, 166 (99%) of 168 in the medium-dose group, and 163 (98%) of 166 in the high-dose group had at least a two-fold increase in neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant from baseline. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) at day 36 for participants who were naive were 2189 (95% CI 1744-2746) for the low-dose group, 2269 (1792-2873) for the medium-dose group, and 2895 (2294-3654) for the high-dose group. GMT ratios (day 36: day 1) were 107 (95% CI 85-135) in the low-dose group, 110 (87-140) in the medium-dose group, and 141 (111-179) in the high-dose group. Neutralising antibody titres in non-naive adults 21 days after one injection tended to be higher than titres after two injections in adults who were naive, with GMTs 21 days after one injection for participants who were non-naive being 3143 (95% CI 836-11 815) in the low-dose group, 2338 (593-9226) in the medium-dose group, and 7069 (1361-36 725) in the high-dose group. INTERPRETATION: Two injections of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 showed acceptable safety and reactogenicity, and robust immunogenicity in adults who were SARS-CoV-2 naive and non-naive. These results supported progression to phase 3 evaluation of the 10 7mu;g antigen dose for primary vaccination and a 5 7mu;g antigen dose for booster vaccination. FUNDING: Sanofi Pasteur and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lactation , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , Young Adult
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100529, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649941

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant emerged in November 2021 and consists of several mutations within the spike. We use serum from mRNA-vaccinated individuals to measure neutralization activity against omicron in a live-virus assay. At 2-4 weeks after a primary series of vaccinations, we observe a 30-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron. Six months after the initial two-vaccine doses, sera from naive vaccinated subjects show no neutralizing activity against omicron. In contrast, COVID-19-recovered individuals 6 months after receiving the primary series of vaccinations show a 22-fold reduction, with the majority of the subjects retaining neutralizing antibody responses. In naive individuals following a booster shot (third dose), we observe a 14-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron, and over 90% of subjects show neutralizing activity. These findings show that a third dose is required to provide robust neutralizing antibody responses against the omicron variant.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 744535, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566663

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can be detected by various testing platforms, but a detailed understanding of assay performance is critical. Methods: We developed and validated a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, which was then applied for surveillance. ELISA results were compared to a set of complimentary serologic assays using a large panel of clinical research samples. Results: The RBD ELISA exhibited robust performance in ROC curve analysis (AUC> 0.99; Se = 89%, Sp = 99.3%). Antibodies were detected in 23/353 (6.5%) healthcare workers, 6/9 RT-PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19 cases, and 0/30 non-COVID-19 cases from an ambulatory site. RBD ELISA showed a positive correlation with neutralizing activity (p = <0.0001, R 2 = 0.26). Conclusions: We applied a validated SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG ELISA in multiple contexts and performed orthogonal testing on samples. This study demonstrates the utility of a simple serologic assay for detecting prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly as a tool for efficiently testing large numbers of samples as in population surveillance. Our work also highlights that precise understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection and immunity at the individual level, particularly with wide availability of vaccination, may be improved by orthogonal testing and/or more complex assays such as multiplex bead assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Priorities , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):755-755, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564902

ABSTRACT

Background A significant burden of disease exists for adults infected with influenza (flu) and SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. However, data are limited comparing outcomes between hospitalized adults infected with these viruses. Methods Over the course of 3 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons, adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions were enrolled from 2 Atlanta area hospitals. For the 2018-19 and 2019-20 seasons, participants were approached in the hospital. If the participant enrolled, nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected and tested using BioFire® FilmArray® respiratory panel. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21 and limitations involving participant contact, only NP standard of care (SOC) swabs were collected. A comprehensive medical chart review was completed for each subject which encompassed data on their hospitalization, past medical history, and vaccination history. Co-infected patients were excluded from the analyses. Results Of the eligible participants, 118 were flu positive (three RSV-influenza co-infections were excluded) and 527 were COVID-19 positive. Median age was lower for the flu cohort at 62 (IQR 56-71) than those with COVID-19 (67, IQR 59-77) (p < 0.0001). Length of stay (LOS) was shorter in flu-infected patients (median 3 d, IQR 2-6), but was longer for COVID-19 patients (median 5 d, IQR 3-10). ICU admission occurred in 20% of those with flu, and among those admitted to the ICU mechanical ventilation (MV) occurred in 12.5%. ICU admission and MV was significantly higher for those with COVID-19, with 28% of patients admitted to the ICU and 47% of those requiring MV. Among patients with COVID-19, 8.9% died. This was significantly higher than that of flu (3.4%) (p=0.008). Hospital discharge occurred more frequently to a nursing home or LTCF with COVID-19 (10.3%) than with flu (0%) (p< 0.0001). Table 1. Breakdown of age, hospitalization course, and discharge disposition for participants diagnosed with influenza or COVID-19 during hospitalization. Conclusion COVID-19 resulted in a longer hospital admission, a greater chance of ICU admission and MV as compared to flu. Additionally, COVID-19 participants had a high rate of discharge to a nursing home/LTCF and a significantly higher risk of death. While the clinical course was not as severe as COVID-19, influenza contributed a significant burden. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel m mber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

16.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):752-753, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564762

ABSTRACT

Background The burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization in adults is incompletely understood. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple public health measures (e.g., social distancing, handwashing, masking) to decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission, which could impact RSV-associated hospitalizations. We sought to compare RSV-associated hospitalizations from 2 pre- and one mid-COVID-19 winter viral respiratory seasons. Methods We conducted an IRB-approved prospective surveillance at two Atlanta-area hospitals during the winter respiratory viral seasons from Oct 2018–Apr 2021 for adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions. Adults were eligible if they were residents of an 8 county region surrounding Atlanta, Georgia. Those with symptoms > 14 days were excluded. Standard of care test results were included. Asymptomatic adults ≥ 50 years of age were enrolled as controls in Seasons 1 and 2. Nasopharyngeal swabs from cases and controls were tested for RSV using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). We compared the demographic features and outcomes of RSV+ cases and controls. Results RSV was detected in 71/2,728 (2.6%) hospitalized adults with ARI, CHF, or COPD and 4/466 (0.9%) controls. In Season 1, RSV occurred in 5.9% (35/596 patients), in Season 2 3.6% (35/970 patients), but in only 0.09% (1/1,162 patients) in Season 3 (P < 0.001 for both seasons). RSV detection in Season 3 was similar to RSV detection among controls during Seasons 1 and 2 (P=0.6). Median age of cases and controls was 67 years (Table 1). Of cases with RSV 11% were admitted to the ICU and two required mechanical ventilation. The majority of hospitalized patients were discharged home (95.8%) with a median length of hospitalization of three days (IQR 2-7). Table 1. Demographic Features and Outcomes Among RSV-Positive Hospitalized Adults. Conclusion Over 3 seasons, RSV was detected in 2.6% of adults admitted to the hospital with ARI, CHF or COPD. The rate of RSV dramatically declined during the 2020-21 winter respiratory viral season, likely due to public health measures implemented in response to COVID-19. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel member)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

17.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):757-758, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564711

ABSTRACT

Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in adults. Influenza is associated with about 490,600 hospitalizations and 34,200 deaths in the US in the 2018-2019 season. The burden of rhinovirus among adults hospitalized with ARI is less well known. We compared the burden of influenza and rhinovirus from 2 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons in hospitalized adults and healthy controls pre-COVID-19 and one season mid-COVID-19 to determine the impact of rhinovirus as a pathogen. Methods From Oct 2018 to Apr 2021, prospective surveillance of adults ≥50 years old admitted with ARI or COPD/CHF exacerbations at any age was conducted at two Atlanta hospitals. Adults were eligible if they lived within an eight-county region around Atlanta and if their symptom duration was < 14 days. In the seasons from Oct 2018 to Mar 2020, asymptomatic adults ≥50 years old were enrolled as controls. Standard of care test results were included and those enrolled contributed nasopharyngeal swabs that were tested for respiratory pathogens using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). Results During the first two seasons, 1566 hospitalized adults were enrolled. Rhinovirus was detected in 7.5% (118) and influenza was detected in 7.7% (121). Rhinovirus was also detected in 2.2% of 466 healthy adult controls while influenza was detected in 0%. During Season 3, the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, influenza declined to 0% of ARI hospitalizations. Rhinovirus also declined (p=0.01) but still accounted for 5.1% of all ARIs screened (Figure 1). Rhinovirus was detected at a greater rate in Season 3 than in asymptomatic controls in the first 2 seasons (p=0.008). In the first two seasons, Influenza was detected in 8.6% (24/276) of those admitted to the ICU. Rhinovirus was detected in 6.1% (17/276) of those admitted to the ICU but declined to 3.1% (8/258) in Season 3. Figure 1. Percent Positive Cases of Influenza and Rhinovirus between Season 1&2 (hospitalized and healthy controls) vs Season 3 (hospitalized) Conclusion Dramatic declines occurred in influenza in adults hospitalized with ARI, CHF, or COPD in Atlanta during the COVID-19 pandemic and with enhanced public health measures. Although rhinovirus declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, it continued to be identified at a rate higher than in historical controls. Additional data are needed to understand the role of rhinovirus in adult ARI, CHF, and COPD exacerbations. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel me ber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

18.
Radiother Oncol ; 165: 20-31, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) has produced anti-inflammatory effects in both animal models and early human trials of COVID-19-related pneumonia. The role of whole-lung LD-RT within existing treatment paradigms merits further study. METHODS: A phase II prospective trial studied the addition of LD-RT to standard drug treatments. Hospitalized and oxygen-dependent patients receiving dexamethasone and/or remdesevir were treated with 1.5 Gy whole-lung LD-RT and compared to a blindly-matched contemporaneous control cohort. RESULTS: Of 40 patients evaluated, 20 received drug therapy combined with whole-lung LD-RT and 20 without LD-RT. Intubation rates were 14% with LD-RT compared to 32% without (p = 0.09). Intubation-free survival was 77% vs. 68% (p = 0.17). Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, p = 0.02) and cardiac injury (creatine kinase, p < 0.01) declined following LD-RT compared to controls. Mean time febrile was 1.4 vs 3.3 days, respectively (p = 0.14). Significant differences in clinical recovery (7.5 vs. 7 days, p = 0.37) and radiographic improvement (p = 0.72) were not detected. On subset analysis, CRP decline following LD-RT was predictive of recovery without intubation compared to controls (0% vs. 31%, p = 0.04), freedom from prolonged hospitalizations (21+ days) (0% vs. 31%, p = 0.04), and decline in oxygenation burden (56% reduction, p = 0.06). CRP decline following 1st drug therapy was not similarly predictive of outcome in controls (p = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: Adding LD-RT to standard drug treatments reduced biomarkers of inflammation and cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients and may have reduced intubation. Durable CRP decline following LD-RT predicted especially favorable recovery, freedom from intubation, reduction in prolonged hospitalization, and reduced oxygenation burden. A confirmatory randomized trial is now ongoing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04366791.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(5): e12531, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427086

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a rare complication associated with vaccines targeting various diseases, including influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, hepatitis B, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis. We report 2 cases of ITP in healthy 20-year-old and 21-year-old women presenting to Emory University in Atlanta, GA, 2 days after the second dose and 11 days after the first dose (respectively) of the Pfizer-BioNTech messenger RNA severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine. Both patients recovered quickly. With more than a billion doses of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines safely administered worldwide as of May 2021, discussions with patients should put into perspective the low risks of vaccination against the enormous societal benefit of the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine.

20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0045821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398599

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a global pandemic with over 152 million cases and 3.19 million deaths reported by early May 2021. Understanding the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical to determining the burden of infection and disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) and transmission dynamics. We developed a capture IgM assay because it should have better sensitivity and specificity than the commonly used indirect assay. Here, we report the development and performance of a capture IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a companion indirect IgG ELISA for the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S. We found that among the IgM ELISAs, the S ELISA was positive in 76% of 55 serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, the RBD ELISA was positive in 55% of samples, and the N ELISA was positive in 15% of samples. The companion indirect IgG ELISAs were positive for S in 89% of the 55 serum samples, RBD in 78%, and N in 85%. While the specificities for IgM RBD, S, and N ELISAs and IgG S and RBD ELISAs were 97% to 100%, the specificity of the N IgG ELISA was lower (89%). RBD-specific IgM antibodies became undetectable by 3 to 6 months, and S IgM reached low levels at 6 months. The corresponding IgG S, RBD, and N antibodies persisted with some decreases in levels over this time period. These capture IgM ELISAs and the companion indirect IgG ELISAs should enhance serologic studies of SARS-CoV-2 infections. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has inflicted tremendous loss of lives, overwhelmed health care systems, and disrupted all aspects of life worldwide since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Detecting current and past infection by PCR or serology is important to understanding and controlling SARS-CoV-2. With increasing prevalence of past infection or vaccination, IgG antibodies are less helpful in diagnosing a current infection. IgM antibodies indicate a more recent infection and can supplement PCR diagnosis. We report an alternative method, capture IgM, to detect serum IgM antibodies, which should be more sensitive and specific than most currently used methods. We describe this capture IgM assay and a companion indirect IgG assay for the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), and receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins. These assays can add value to diagnostic and serologic studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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