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1.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234840

ABSTRACT

Children's screen time increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the summer of 2021, we explored the association between high screen time over a period of one year since May 2020 and behavioural problems among children and adolescents. The data were derived from the French EpiCov cohort study, collected in spring 2020, autumn 2020, and spring 2021. Participants (N = 1089) responded to online or telephone interviews about one of their children aged 3 to 14 years. Screen time was categorized as high if the daily mean screen time exceeded recommendations at each collection time. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was completed by parents to identify internalizing (emotional or peer problems) and externalizing (conduct problems or hyperactivity/inattention) behaviours in their children. Among the 1,089 children, 561 (51.5%) were girls, the average age was 8.6 years (SD 3.7). Internalizing behaviours: High screen time was not associated with internalizing behaviours (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [0.90-1.59]) or emotional symptoms (1.00 [0.71-1.41]) while it was associated with peer problems (1.42 [1.04-1.95]). Externalizing behaviours: High screen time was associated with externalizing problems (1.63 [1.01-2.63]) and conduct problems (1.91 [1.15-3.22]) only among older children aged 11 to 14 years. No association with hyperactivity/inattention was found. In a French cohort, exploration of persistent high screen time in the first year of the pandemic and behaviour difficulties in Summer 2021 resulted in mixed findings according to behaviour's type and children's age. These mixed findings warrant further investigation into screen type and leisure/school screen use to enhance future pandemic responses appropriate for children.

2.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325068

ABSTRACT

Emerging research suggests that the prevalence of child and adolescent mental health problems has increased considerably during the COVID-19 crisis. However, there have been few longitudinal studies on children's mental health issues according to their social determinants in this context, especially in Europe. Our aim was to investigate the association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and children' mental health during the period of school closure due to COVID-19. Longitudinal data came from 4575 children aged 8-9 years old in 2020 and participating in the ELFE population-based birth cohort that focuses on children's health, development and socialization. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) when children were (a) 5 years of age and (b) 9 years of age, which corresponded to the period of school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic in France. We retrieved data from the ELFE cohort collected on children from birth to age 5 years (birth, 1 year, 2 years, 3,5 years and 5 years). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured based on information obtained when the child was 5 years old. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models. Children's elevated levels of symptoms of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the period of school closure were significantly associated with prior low family SES (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48). Children's elevated symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and of emotional symptoms were associated with decline in income during the COVID crisis (respectively, aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.63 and aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51). Moreover, when testing interactions, a low prior SES was significantly associated with a higher risk of emotional symptoms aOR 1.54 (1.07-2.21), only for children whose families experienced a decline in income, while gender, parental separation and prior mental health difficulties were not associated. This study underlines the impact of the financial crisis related to the COVID-19 epidemic on children's mental health. Both pre-existing family SES before lockdown and more proximal financial difficulties during the COVID crisis were negatively associated with children's psychological difficulties during the period of school closure. The pandemic appears to exacerbate mental health problems in deprived children whose families suffer from financial difficulties.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2312892, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318716

ABSTRACT

Importance: The long-term consequences of COVID-19 on mental health are a critical issue given the number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic. Objective: To investigate the associations between self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms or SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent depression or anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This propensity score-matched cohort study began in May 2020, with follow-ups in November 2020 and July 2021. The study used data from a large, randomly selected, national population-based cohort from France, the EpiCoV (Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie) study. Of 85 074 individuals 15 years or older who completed the questionnaires at the 3 collection times, 28 568 were excluded because they did not return a blood sample for serologic testing, 1994 because of missing data on outcomes or exposures, and 9252 to respect the temporal sequence (exposure must precede the outcome). Exposures: Propensity scores based on various socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health variables were computed to match participants who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms between February and November 2020 or showed SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between these occurrences and depression or anxiety assessed in July 2021 using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scales, respectively. Results: Among the 45 260 included participants (mean [SD] age, 51.1 [18.9] years; 52.4% women; 8.0% with depression and 5.3% with anxiety in July 2021), COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with subsequent depression (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.45-1.99) and anxiety (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.29-1.92), whereas SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was not. Furthermore, COVID-19-like symptoms, but not anosmia or dysgeusia alone, were associated with subsequent depression and anxiety in both the seropositive and seronegative subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of more than 45 000 individuals drawn from the French general population, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not found as a risk factor of subsequent depression or anxiety. Moreover, self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with depression and anxiety assessed at least 8 months later in both seropositive and seronegative subgroups, suggesting that factors other than SARS-CoV-2 infection are implied in this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Self Report , Cohort Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Can J Public Health ; 114(3): 368-377, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Findings from a birth cohort study indicated that the mental health of young adults had not worsened during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to 2018. This study examined longitudinal changes in mental health between March 2018 and June 2021 in the context of protracted public health mitigation measures about 12 months after the onset of the pandemic. METHODS: Participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (n = 2120 at inception; n = 1461 during the COVID-19 pandemic), a population-based cohort of individuals born in 1997/1998, reported on their depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as suicidal ideation prior to the pandemic in 2018 (age 20), and during the pandemic in the summer of 2020 (age 22) and spring of 2021 (age 23). RESULTS: Depressive (Cohen's d = 0.15 [95% CI: 0.09 to 0.20]) and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.33 [95% CI: 0.27 to 0.39]) symptoms increased between 2018 and 2021 for both males and females, but suicidal ideation did not change. There was also a significant increase in moderate to severe depressive (31.7% to 36.3%) and anxiety (14.7% to 24.8%) symptoms from 2018 to 2021. Youth who were students, those who were experiencing financial stress, food insecurity, and loneliness, and those without pre-existing poor mental health experienced the largest increase in depressive and anxiety symptoms over time. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the mental health burden experienced by young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the need for preventive services and continued longitudinal follow-ups of these youths.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Les résultats d'une étude de cohorte de naissance ont indiqué que la santé mentale des jeunes adultes ne s'était pas détériorée au cours de la première vague de la pandémie de la COVID-19, en comparaison à 2018. La présente étude examine maintenant les changements longitudinaux de la santé mentale entre mars 2018 et juin 2021, dans le contexte de mesures prolongées de santé publique, environ 12 mois après le début de la pandémie. MéTHODES: Les participants de l'Étude longitudinale du développement des enfants du Québec (n = 2120 à la création; n = 1461 pendant la pandémie de COVID-19), une cohorte basée sur la population de personnes nées en 1997­98, ont rapporté leurs symptômes de dépression et d'anxiété ainsi que leurs idéations suicidaires avant la pandémie en 2018 (20 ans), pendant la pandémie à l'été 2020 (22 ans) ainsi qu'au printemps 2021 (23 ans). RéSULTATS: Les symptômes de dépression (d de Cohen = 0,15 [95% IC: 0,09 à 0,20]) et d'anxiété (d de Cohen = 0,33 [95% IC: 0,27 à 0,39]) ont augmenté entre 2018 et 2021 chez les hommes et les femmes, mais les idéations suicidaires n'ont pas changé. Une augmentation significative des symptômes dépressifs modérés à sévères (31,7 % à 36,3 %) et des symptômes d'anxiété (14,7 % à 24,8 %) a également été observée entre 2018 et 2021. Les jeunes qui étaient étudiants, ceux qui rapportaient un stress financier, de l'insécurité alimentaire et de la solitude, ainsi que ceux qui avaient une bonne santé mentale en prépandémie, ont connu la plus forte augmentation des symptômes de dépression et d'anxiété au fil du temps. CONCLUSION: Ces résultats mettent en évidence l'impact de la pandémie de la COVID-19 sur la santé mentale des jeunes adultes, et soulignent la nécessité de mettre en place des services de prévention et de poursuivre le suivi longitudinal de ces jeunes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Adult , Suicidal Ideation , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4863, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272702

ABSTRACT

Several risk factors of children's mental health issues have been identified during the pandemic of COronaVIrus Disease first appeared in 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to fill the knowledge gap regarding the association between parents' and children's mental health issues during the COVID-19 school closure in France. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the SAPRIS-ELFE study during the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Using multinomial logistic regressions, we estimated associations between parents' and children's mental health issues. Symptoms of anxiety were assessed by the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and depression by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for the parents. Hyperactivity/inattention and emotional symptoms in children were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The sample included 3496 children aged 8 to 9 years, of whom 50.0% were girls. During the school closure, 7.1% of responding parents had moderate to severe levels of anxiety and 6.7% had moderate to severe levels of depression. A total of 11.8% of the children had an abnormal hyperactivity/inattention score and 6.6% had an abnormal emotional symptoms score. In multivariate regression models, parental moderate to severe level of anxiety and moderate to severe level of depression were associated with abnormal hyperactivity-inattention score (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 3.31; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.33-4.70 and aOR 4.65; 95% CI 3.27-6.59, respectively) and abnormal emotional symptoms score in children (aOR 3.58; 95% CI 2.33-5.49 and aOR 3.78; 95 CI 2.47-5.78 respectively). Children whose parents have symptoms of anxiety and/or depression have an increased likelihood of symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and emotional symptoms during school closures in France due to COVID-19. Our findings suggest that public health initiatives should target parents and children to limit the impact of such crises on their mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Female , Humans , Child , Male , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Schools , Parents/psychology
6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 29(6): 1649-1656, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265336

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate associations between outdoor and screen time and changes in sleep patterns in children from two nationwide birth-cohorts in the SAPRIS project. METHODS: During the first French COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, volunteer parents of children enrolled in the ELFE and EPIPAGE2 birth-cohorts completed online questions about their child's outdoor time, screen time, and changes in sleep duration and quality compared with the pre-lockdown situation. In 5700 children (aged 8-9 years, 52% boys) with available data, we assessed associations between outdoor time, screen time, and sleep changes using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Children spent on average 3 h08 outdoors and 4 h34 using screens/day (3 h27 for leisure, 1 h07 for class-work). Sleep duration increased in 36% of children and decreased in 13.4%; sleep difficulties appeared/increased in 22.5% and decreased/disappeared/remained stable in 18.3%. After adjustment, increased screen time, especially for leisure, was associated with increased and decreased sleep duration (OR(95%CI) = 1.03(1.00-1.06) and OR = 1.06(1.02-1.10), respectively). No association was observed between outdoor time and sleep changes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds evidence for the association between high leisure-time screen time and shorter sleep time. It supports current screen guidelines for children, especially during leisure time and for those whose sleep duration is short.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Child , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Birth Cohort , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Sleep
7.
PLoS Med ; 20(2): e1004171, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A higher risk of suicidal ideation associated with self-report of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms or COVID-19 infection has been observed in cross-sectional studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies remains limited. The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to explore if self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020 were associated with suicidal ideation in 2021; (2) to explore if the association also existed when using a biological marker of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 52,050 participants from the French EpiCov cohort were included (median follow-up time = 13.7 months). In terms of demographics, 53.84% were women, 60.92% were over 45 years old, 82.01% were born in mainland France from parents born in mainland France, and 59.38% completed high school. COVID-19-like symptoms were defined as participant report of a sudden loss of taste/smell or fever alongside cough, shortness of breath, or chest oppression, between February and November 2020. Symptoms were self-reported at baseline in May 2020 and at the first follow-up in Autumn 2020. Serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 was derived from Spike protein ELISA test screening in dried-blood-spot samples. Samples were collected from October 2020 to March 2021, with 94.4% collected in 2020. Suicidal ideation since December 2020 was self-reported at the second follow-up in Summer 2021. Associations of self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms and serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 with suicidal ideation in 2021 were ascertained using modified Poisson regression models, weighted by inverse probability weights computed from propensity scores. Among the 52,050 participants, 1.68% [1.54% to 1.82%] reported suicidal ideation in 2021, 9.57% [9.24% to 9.90%] had a serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, and 13.23% [12.86% to 13.61%] reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020. Self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020 were associated with higher risks of later suicidal ideation in 2021 (Relative Riskipw [95% CI] = 1.43 [1.20 to 1.69]), while serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 was not (RRipw = 0.89 [0.70 to 1.13]). Limitations of this study include the use of a single question to assess suicidal ideation, the use of self-reported history of mental health disorders, and limited generalizability due to attrition bias. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020, but not serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, were associated with a higher risk of subsequent suicidal ideation in 2021. The exact role of SARS-CoV-2 infection with respect to suicide risk has yet to be clarified. Including mental health resources in COVID-19-related settings could encourage symptomatic individuals to care for their mental health and limit suicidal ideation to emerge or worsen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Cohort Studies , Suicidal Ideation , Propensity Score , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Patient Educ Couns ; 110: 107672, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Information Overload scale (CovIO) and explore relationships between CovIO, its predictors and several health behaviours related to the COVID-19 pandemic, using Cancer Information Overload (CIO) scale results as a reference for comparison. METHODS: 2003 participants representative of the French adult population answered a self-administered questionnaire over two waves of polling (N1(June 2020)= 1003, N2(January 2021)= 1000). Respondents were randomized to fill CovIO or CIO scale. Psychometric properties of scales were evaluated with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Predictors were assessed using multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: CovIO scale showed satisfactory psychometric properties (α=0.86, ω=0.86, RMSEA=0.050) without any measurement invariance issue. CovIO increased between waves of sampling and was significantly linked to education, health literacy and trust in institutions among other variables. A negative relationship between information overload and preventive behaviours was also observed. CONCLUSION: The CovIO scale is a valid tool for assessing COVID-19 information overload. The dynamical formation of information overload and links with theorised predictors, especially, health literacy are confirmed. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal designs could help better understand the potential detrimental effect of information overload and improving public health campaigns. Interventions to reduce the degree of overload are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Health Literacy/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children's mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. Our study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-term children. METHODS: Data from two French birth cohorts-ELFE and EPIPAGE-2-were used. In 2011, infants born ≥22 weeks' gestation were recruited. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when the children were 9 years old and experiencing school closure. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Subjects included 4164 full-term and 1119 preterm children. In univariate analyses, compared to full-term children: extremely and very preterm children more frequently had abnormal and borderline ADHD scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.30, OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08-1.85, respectively) and abnormal emotional scores (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.40); moderate to late preterm children more often had abnormal ADHD scores (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.78). The associations did not remain when previous symptoms at 5 years old were considered. CONCLUSIONS: School closure during lockdown did not appear to increase the risk of mental health problems in preterm compared to full-term children. IMPACT STATEMENT: Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration in children's mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. However, whether preterm children were a particularly vulnerable subgroup during school closure is unclear. In univariate analyses, extremely and very preterm children more often had abnormal and borderline ADHD symptoms and abnormal emotional symptom scores than full-term children. The associations did not remain significantly associated when previous symptoms were considered. Preterm compared to full-term children more often suffer from ADHD and emotional symptoms, but school closure during lockdown did not appear to increase this risk.

10.
Int J Med Inform ; 171: 104994, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of users of the TousAntiCovid app(lication) and identify factors associated with its non-use for contact tracing. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of a quota sample of French adults between 8 and 18 January 2021. Three categories of TousAntiCovid use were considered: contact tracing, other or temporary usage, and no use. A weighted multiple logistic regression was performed to analyze the factors associated with these different uses. RESULTS: Among the 1000 respondents, 63.3% declared they had never downloaded the TousAntiCovid app, 23.5% used it for contact tracing. The remaining 13.2% did not enable contact tracing, mainly because of excessive battery consumption and fear of misuse of personal data. Trust in political representatives, financial deprivation and other factors were associated with never downloading the app. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previously suggested links between trust in political representatives, financial deprivation and the use of contact tracing apps in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Pandemics , France/epidemiology
11.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102292

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the relationship between young adults' labor force participation and depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, setting, participants Data come from the nationally-representative EPICOV cohort study set up in France, and were collected in 2020 and 2021 (3 waves of online or telephone interviews: 02/05/2020–12/06/2020;26/10/2020–14/12/2020;24/06/2021–09/08/2021) among 2,217 participants aged 18–30 years. Participants with prior mental health disorder (n = 50) were excluded from the statistical analyses. Results Using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models controlled for participants' socio-demographic and health characteristics and weighted to be nationally-representative, we found that compared to young adults who were employed, those who were studying or unemployed were significantly more likely to experience depression assessed using the PHQ-9 (multivariable ORs, respectively: OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.60 and OR: 1.50, 1.13–1.99). Stratifying the analyses by age, we observed that unemployment was more strongly associated with depression among participants 25–30 years than among those who were 18–24 years (multivariable ORs, respectively, 1.78, 95% CI 1.17–2.71 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.96–2.09). Being out of the labor force was, to the contrary, more significantly associated with depression among participants 18–24 years (multivariable OR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.04–2.82, vs. 1.00, 95% CI 0.53–1.87 among participants 25–30 years). Stratifying the analyses by sex, we found no significant differences in the relationships between labor market characteristics and depression (compared to participants who were employed, multivariable ORs associated with being a student: men: 1.33, 95% CI 1.01–1.76;women: 1.19, 95% CI 0.85–1.67, multivariable ORs associated with being unemployed: men: 1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.45;women: 1.47, 95% CI 1.01–2.15). Conclusions and relevance Our study shows that in addition to students, young adults who are unemployed also experience elevated levels of depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. These two groups should be the focus of specific attention in terms of prevention and mental health treatment. Supporting employment could also be a propitious way of reducing the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young adults.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(5): 1458-1472, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the seropositivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in May-June 2020 after the first lockdown period in adults living in three regions in France and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Between 4 May 2020 and 23 June 2020, 16 000 participants in a survey on COVID-19 from an existing consortium of three general adult population cohorts living in the Ile-de-France (IDF) or Grand Est (GE) (two regions with high rate of COVID-19) or in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine (NA) (with a low rate) were randomly selected to take a dried-blood spot for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies assessment with three different serological methods (ClinicalTrial Identifier #NCT04392388). The primary outcome was a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the spike protein of the virus (ELISA-S). Estimates were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification methods. Multiple imputation was used to infer the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with adjustments for imperfect tests accuracies. RESULTS: The analysis included 14 628 participants, 983 with a positive ELISA-S. The weighted estimates of seropositivity and cumulative incidence were 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1%, 10.9%] and 11.4% (95% CI: 10.1%, 12.8%) in IDF, 9.0% (95% CI: 7.7%, 10.2%) and 9.8% (95% CI: 8.1%, 11.8%) in GE and 3.1% (95% CI: 2.4%, 3.7%) and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1%, 3.8%) in NA, respectively. Seropositivity was higher in younger participants [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.79, 6.09) in <40 vs 50-60 years old and OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.74) in ≥70 vs 50-60 years old)] and when at least one child or adolescent lived in the same household [OR = 1.30 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.53)] and was lower in smokers compared with non-smokers [OR = 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.89)]. CONCLUSIONS: Seropositivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the French adult population was ≤10% after the first wave. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e27768, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. METHODS: The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants' communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(7): 1-12, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 epidemic has spread worldwide since December 2019. To contain it, preventive measures including social distancing, economic shutdown, and school closures were introduced, carrying the risk of mental health burden in adults and children. Although the knowledge base regarding children's response to trauma and adverse events in general has broadened, descriptions of their mental health during epidemics remain scarce. In particular, the role of family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: We assessed the correlates of children's emotional difficulties and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention during the COVID-19 lockdown in a French community-based sample. Data came from 432 community-based parents (27-46 years, TEMPO cohort) and their children (mean age 6.8 ± 4.1) interviewed online. Children's symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention were assessed using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire during the 5th week of home confinement. Family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health and substance use were assessed weekly during the first 5 weeks of home confinement. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: 7.1% of children presented symptoms of emotional difficulties and 24.7% symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention. Family financial difficulties and parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as children's sleeping difficulties and screen time, were associated with the presence of psychological difficulties. CONCLUSION: Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are associated with parental mental health and socioeconomic difficulties. In the unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 epidemic, parents and professionals involved in caring for children should pay special attention to their mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Protective Factors
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 169, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Participants from 3 adult cohorts in the general population in France were invited to participate in a survey on COVID-19. The main outcome was COVID-19-Like Symptoms (CLS), defined as a sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days and occurred during the 17 days before the survey. We used delayed-entry Cox models to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Between April 2, 2020 and May 12, 2020, 279,478 participants were invited, 116,903 validated the questionnaire and 106,848 were included in the analysis. Three thousand thirty-five cases of CLS were reported during 62,099 person-months of follow-up. The cumulative incidences of CLS were 6.2% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 5.7%; 6.6%) on day 15 and 8.8% (95%CI 8.3%; 9.2%) on day 45 of lockdown. The risk of CLS was lower in older age groups and higher in French regions with a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in participants living in cities > 100,000 inhabitants (vs rural areas), when at least one child or adolescent was living in the same household, in overweight or obese people, and in people with chronic respiratory diseases, anxiety or depression or chronic diseases other than diabetes, cancer, hypertension or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CLS in the general population remained high during the first 2 weeks of lockdown, and decreased significantly thereafter. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cough , Female , Fever , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
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