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2.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872446

ABSTRACT

Emerging research suggests that the prevalence of child and adolescent mental health problems has increased considerably during the COVID-19 crisis. However, there have been few longitudinal studies on children's mental health issues according to their social determinants in this context, especially in Europe. Our aim was to investigate the association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and children' mental health during the period of school closure due to COVID-19. Longitudinal data came from 4575 children aged 8-9 years old in 2020 and participating in the ELFE population-based birth cohort that focuses on children's health, development and socialization. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) when children were (a) 5 years of age and (b) 9 years of age, which corresponded to the period of school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic in France. We retrieved data from the ELFE cohort collected on children from birth to age 5 years (birth, 1 year, 2 years, 3,5 years and 5 years). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured based on information obtained when the child was 5 years old. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models. Children's elevated levels of symptoms of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the period of school closure were significantly associated with prior low family SES (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48). Children's elevated symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and of emotional symptoms were associated with decline in income during the COVID crisis (respectively, aOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.63 and aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51). Moreover, when testing interactions, a low prior SES was significantly associated with a higher risk of emotional symptoms aOR 1.54 (1.07-2.21), only for children whose families experienced a decline in income, while gender, parental separation and prior mental health difficulties were not associated. This study underlines the impact of the financial crisis related to the COVID-19 epidemic on children's mental health. Both pre-existing family SES before lockdown and more proximal financial difficulties during the COVID crisis were negatively associated with children's psychological difficulties during the period of school closure. The pandemic appears to exacerbate mental health problems in deprived children whose families suffer from financial difficulties.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331609

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the relationship between young adults labor force participation and depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, Participants: Data come from the nationally-representative EPICOV cohort study set up in France, and were collected in 2020 and 2021 (3 waves of online or telephone interviews) among 2217 participants aged 18-30 years. Participants with prior mental health disorder (n=50) were excluded from the statistical analyses. Results: Using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models controlled for participant socio-demographic and health characteristics and weighted to be nationally-representative, we found that compared to young adults who were employed, those who were studying or unemployed were significantly more likely to experience depression assessed using the PHQ-9 (multivariate ORs respectively: OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.60 and OR: 1.50, 1.13-1.99). Stratifying the analyses by age, we observed than unemployment was more strongly associated with depression among participants 25-30 years than among those who were 18-24 years (multivariate ORs respectively 1.78, 95% CI 1.17-2.71 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.09). Being out of the labor force was, to the contrary, more significantly associated with depression among participants 18-24 years (multivariate OR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.82, vs. 1.00, 95% CI 0.53-1.87 among participants 25-30 years). Stratifying the analyses by sex, we found no significant differences in the relationships between labor market characteristics and depression (compared to participants who were employed, multivariate ORs associated with being a student: men: 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.76;women: 1.19, 95% CI 0.85-1.67, multivariate ORs associated with being unemployed: men: 1.60, 95% CI 1.04-2.45;women: 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.15). Conclusions and relevance: Our study shows that in addition to students, young adults who are unemployed also experience elevated levels of depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. These two groups should be the focus of specific attention in terms of prevention and mental health treatment. Supporting employment could also be a propitious way of reducing the burden of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health of young adults.

5.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children's mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. Our study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-term children. METHODS: Data from two French birth cohorts-ELFE and EPIPAGE-2-were used. In 2011, infants born ≥22 weeks' gestation were recruited. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when the children were 9 years old and experiencing school closure. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Subjects included 4164 full-term and 1119 preterm children. In univariate analyses, compared to full-term children: extremely and very preterm children more frequently had abnormal and borderline ADHD scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.30, OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08-1.85, respectively) and abnormal emotional scores (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.40); moderate to late preterm children more often had abnormal ADHD scores (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.78). The associations did not remain when previous symptoms at 5 years old were considered. CONCLUSIONS: School closure during lockdown did not appear to increase the risk of mental health problems in preterm compared to full-term children. IMPACT STATEMENT: Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration in children's mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. However, whether preterm children were a particularly vulnerable subgroup during school closure is unclear. In univariate analyses, extremely and very preterm children more often had abnormal and borderline ADHD symptoms and abnormal emotional symptom scores than full-term children. The associations did not remain significantly associated when previous symptoms were considered. Preterm compared to full-term children more often suffer from ADHD and emotional symptoms, but school closure during lockdown did not appear to increase this risk.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317319

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 limitation strategies have led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study reports children’s mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France in the spring of 2020. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the SAPRIS project set up during the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Using multinomial logistic regression models, we estimated associations between children’s mental health, children’s health behaviors, schooling, and sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children’s families. Results: The sample consisted of 5702 children aged 8 to 9 years, including 50.2% girls. In multivariate logistic regression models, children’s sleeping difficulties were associated with children’s abnormal hyperactivity-inattention (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.05;95% Confidence Interval 1.70-2.47) and emotional symptoms (aOR 5.34;95% CI 4.16-6.86). Factors specifically associated with abnormal hyperactivity/inattention were: male sex (aOR 2.29;95% CI 1.90-2.76), access to specialized care prior to the pandemic and its suspension during school closure (aOR 1.51;95% CI 1.21-1.88), abnormal emotional symptoms (aOR 4.06;95% CI 3.11-5.29), being unschooled or schooled with assistance before lockdown (aOR 2.13;95% CI 1.43-3.17), and tutoring with difficulties or absence of a tutor (aOR 3.25;95% CI 2.64-3.99;aOR 2.47;95% CI 1.48-4.11, respectively). Factors associated with children’s emotional symptoms were the following: being born pre-term (aOR 1.34;95% CI 1.03-1.73), COVID-19 cases among household members (aOR 1.72;95% CI 1.08-2.73), abnormal symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (aOR 4.18;95% CI 3.27-5.34) and modest income (aOR 1.45;95% CI 1.07-1.96;aOR 1.36;95% CI 1.01-1.84). Conclusions: Multiple characteristics were associated with elevated levels of symptoms of hyperactivity-inattention and emotional symptoms in children during the period of school closure due to COVID-19. Further studies are needed to help policymakers to balance the pros and cons of closing schools, taking into consideration the educational and psychological consequences for children.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307794

ABSTRACT

Background: Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Participants from 3 adult cohorts in the general population in France were invited to participate in a survey on COVID-19. The main outcome was possible COVID-19, defined as a sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days and occurred during the 17 days before the survey. We used delayed-entry Cox models to identify associated factors. Results: Between April 2, 2020 and May 12, 2020, 279,478 participants were invited, 116,903 validated the questionnaire and 106,848 were included in the analysis. Three thousand thirty-five cases of possible COVID-19 were reported during 62,099 person-months of follow-up. The cumulative incidences of possible COVID-19 were 6.2% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 5.7%;6.6%) on day 15 and 8.8% (95%CI 8.3%;9.2%) on day 45 of lockdown. The risk of possible COVID-19 was lower in older age groups and higher in French regions with a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in participants living in cities >100,000 inhabitants (vs rural areas), when at least one child or adolescent was living in the same household, in overweight or obese people, and in people with chronic respiratory diseases, anxiety or depression or chronic diseases other than diabetes, cancer, hypertension or cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: The incidence of possible COVID-19 in the general population remained high during the first two weeks of lockdown, and decreased significantly thereafter. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(5): 1458-1472, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the seropositivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in May-June 2020 after the first lockdown period in adults living in three regions in France and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Between 4 May 2020 and 23 June 2020, 16 000 participants in a survey on COVID-19 from an existing consortium of three general adult population cohorts living in the Ile-de-France (IDF) or Grand Est (GE) (two regions with high rate of COVID-19) or in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine (NA) (with a low rate) were randomly selected to take a dried-blood spot for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies assessment with three different serological methods (ClinicalTrial Identifier #NCT04392388). The primary outcome was a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the spike protein of the virus (ELISA-S). Estimates were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification methods. Multiple imputation was used to infer the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with adjustments for imperfect tests accuracies. RESULTS: The analysis included 14 628 participants, 983 with a positive ELISA-S. The weighted estimates of seropositivity and cumulative incidence were 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1%, 10.9%] and 11.4% (95% CI: 10.1%, 12.8%) in IDF, 9.0% (95% CI: 7.7%, 10.2%) and 9.8% (95% CI: 8.1%, 11.8%) in GE and 3.1% (95% CI: 2.4%, 3.7%) and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1%, 3.8%) in NA, respectively. Seropositivity was higher in younger participants [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.79, 6.09) in <40 vs 50-60 years old and OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.74) in ≥70 vs 50-60 years old)] and when at least one child or adolescent lived in the same household [OR = 1.30 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.53)] and was lower in smokers compared with non-smokers [OR = 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.89)]. CONCLUSIONS: Seropositivity to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the French adult population was ≤10% after the first wave. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e27768, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. METHODS: The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants' communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e27768, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. METHODS: The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants' communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(7): 1-12, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 epidemic has spread worldwide since December 2019. To contain it, preventive measures including social distancing, economic shutdown, and school closures were introduced, carrying the risk of mental health burden in adults and children. Although the knowledge base regarding children's response to trauma and adverse events in general has broadened, descriptions of their mental health during epidemics remain scarce. In particular, the role of family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: We assessed the correlates of children's emotional difficulties and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention during the COVID-19 lockdown in a French community-based sample. Data came from 432 community-based parents (27-46 years, TEMPO cohort) and their children (mean age 6.8 ± 4.1) interviewed online. Children's symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention were assessed using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire during the 5th week of home confinement. Family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health and substance use were assessed weekly during the first 5 weeks of home confinement. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: 7.1% of children presented symptoms of emotional difficulties and 24.7% symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention. Family financial difficulties and parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as children's sleeping difficulties and screen time, were associated with the presence of psychological difficulties. CONCLUSION: Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are associated with parental mental health and socioeconomic difficulties. In the unprecedented situation of the COVID-19 epidemic, parents and professionals involved in caring for children should pay special attention to their mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Protective Factors
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 169, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Participants from 3 adult cohorts in the general population in France were invited to participate in a survey on COVID-19. The main outcome was COVID-19-Like Symptoms (CLS), defined as a sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days and occurred during the 17 days before the survey. We used delayed-entry Cox models to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Between April 2, 2020 and May 12, 2020, 279,478 participants were invited, 116,903 validated the questionnaire and 106,848 were included in the analysis. Three thousand thirty-five cases of CLS were reported during 62,099 person-months of follow-up. The cumulative incidences of CLS were 6.2% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 5.7%; 6.6%) on day 15 and 8.8% (95%CI 8.3%; 9.2%) on day 45 of lockdown. The risk of CLS was lower in older age groups and higher in French regions with a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in participants living in cities > 100,000 inhabitants (vs rural areas), when at least one child or adolescent was living in the same household, in overweight or obese people, and in people with chronic respiratory diseases, anxiety or depression or chronic diseases other than diabetes, cancer, hypertension or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CLS in the general population remained high during the first 2 weeks of lockdown, and decreased significantly thereafter. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cough , Female , Fever , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
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