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PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293448


Serosurveys are a key resource for measuring SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that asymptomatic and mild infections (together making up over 95% of all infections) are associated with lower antibody titers than severe infections. Antibody levels also peak a few weeks after infection and decay gradually. We developed a statistical approach to produce adjusted estimates of seroprevalence from raw serosurvey results that account for these sources of spectrum bias. We incorporate data on antibody responses on multiple assays from a post-infection longitudinal cohort, along with epidemic time series to account for the timing of a serosurvey relative to how recently individuals may have been infected. We applied this method to produce adjusted seroprevalence estimates from five large-scale SARS-CoV-2 serosurveys across different settings and study designs. We identify substantial differences between reported and adjusted estimates of over two-fold in the results of some surveys, and provide a tool for practitioners to generate adjusted estimates with pre-set or custom parameter values. While unprecedented efforts have been launched to generate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimates over this past year, interpretation of results from these studies requires properly accounting for both population-level epidemiologic context and individual-level immune dynamics.

PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293421


Background: As COVID-19 vaccines continue to be rolled-out, the "double burden" of health disparities in both exposure to infection and vaccination coverage intersect to determine the current and future patterns of infection, immunity, and mortality. Serology provides a unique opportunity to measure biomarkers of infection and vaccination simultaneously, and to relate these metrics to demographic and geographic factors. Methods: Leveraging algorithmically selected residual serum samples from two hospital networks in San Francisco, we sampled 1014 individuals during February 2021, capturing transmission during the first 11 months of the epidemic and the early roll out of vaccination. These samples were tested using two serologic assays: one detecting antibodies elicited by infection, and not by vaccines, and one detecting antibodies elicited by both infection and vaccination. We used Bayesian statistical models to estimate the proportion of the population that was naturally infected and the proportion protected due to vaccination. Findings: We estimated that the risk of prior infection of Latinx residents was 5.3 (95% CI: 3.2 - 10.3) times greater than the risk of white residents aged 18-64 and that white San Francisco residents over the age of 65 were twice as likely (2.0, 95% CI: 1.1 - 4.6) to be vaccinated as Black residents. We also found socioeconomically deprived zipcodes in the city had high probabilities of natural infections and lower vaccination coverage than wealthier zipcodes. Interpretation: Using a platform we created for SARS-CoV-2 serologic data collection in San Francisco, we characterized and quantified the stark disparities in infection rates and vaccine coverage by demographic groups over the first year of the pandemic. While the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has created a 'light at the end of the tunnel' for this pandemic, ongoing challenges in achieving and maintaining equity must also be considered. Funding: NIH, NIGMS, Schmidt Science Fellows in partnership with the Rhodes Trust and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub.

PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-7510


Serosurveillance provides a unique opportunity to quantify the proportion of the population that has been exposed to pathogens. Here, we developed and piloted Serosurveillance for Continuous, ActionabLe Epidemiologic Intelligence of Transmission (SCALE-IT), a platform through which we systematically tested remnant samples from routine blood draws in two major hospital networks in San Francisco for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the early months of the pandemic. Importantly, SCALE-IT allows for algorithmic sample selection and rich data on covariates by leveraging electronic medical record data. We estimated overall seroprevalence at 4.2%, corresponding to a case ascertainment rate of only 4.9%, and identified important heterogeneities by neighborhood, homelessness status, and race/ethnicity. Neighborhood seroprevalence estimates from SCALE-IT were comparable to local community-based surveys, while providing results encompassing the entire city that have been previously unavailable. Leveraging this hybrid serosurveillance approach has strong potential for application beyond this local context and for diseases other than SARS-CoV-2.