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1.
Surgeon ; 20(5): 275-283, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing numbers of female medical students, surgery remains male-dominated. PURPOSE: To highlight the principal career obstacles experienced by aspiring female surgeons. METHODS: A narrative review of literature on the position and career barriers of female surgeons has been conducted, using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. MAIN FINDINGS: Implicit and even explicit biases against female surgeons remain prevalent, negatively impacting their training performance and overall professional trajectory. Female surgeons are globally underrepresented in leadership positions and senior academic rankings, especially that of a full professor. They feel hampered by lack of effective mentorship, whose value for a successful career has been acknowledged by all medical students, surgeons and surgical leaders. Their work-life imbalance is sometimes expressed as lower likelihood than their male contemporaries of getting married or having children and may be attributed to their conventional association with the role of caretaker, their personal desire to accommodate occupational and family duties and the inadequate implementation of parental leave and childcare policies. Female surgeons' "infertility" may be further explained by direct and indirect pregnancy-related difficulties. Female surgeons are also financially undercompensated compared to their male contemporaries. Finally, specialty-specific challenges should not be overlooked. CONCLUSIONS: While encouraging steps have been made, women in surgery feel still hindered by various obstacles. The qualitative, interview-based nature of current literature requires more meticulous studies on these barriers with a more quantitative and objective approach. Attenuation of gender imbalance in surgical specialties requires further changes in mentality and more targeted modifications in relevant policies.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Surgeons , Attitude of Health Personnel , Career Choice , Child , Female , General Surgery/education , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Specialties, Surgical/education
2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186914

ABSTRACT

Constant accumulation of data results in continuous updates of guidelines and recommendations on the proper management of pregnant women with COVID-19. This study aims to summarize the up-to-date information about the prevention and management of suspected/confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in obstetric patients and obstetric care during prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed for relevant English-written full-text reviews. We also included relevant guidelines and recommendations. In women with a low risk for infection and uncomplicated pregnancy, elective and non-urgent appointments should be postponed or completed through telehealth. Vaccination should be discussed and distance and personal hygiene preventive measures should be recommended. Routine ultrasound examinations should be adjusted in order to minimize exposure to the virus. Standardized criteria should evaluate the need for admission. Women with moderate/high-risk for infection should be isolated and tested with RT-PCR. The mode and timing of delivery should follow routine obstetric indications. In case of infection, glucocorticoids are recommended in critically ill pregnant women, after individualized evaluation. During labor and concomitant infection, the duration of the first two stages should be reduced as possible to decrease aerosolization, while minimization of hemorrhage is essential during the third stage. Close maternal monitoring and adequate oxygenation when necessary always remain a prerequisite. Discharge should be considered on the first or second day postpartum, also depending on delivery mode. Breastfeeding with protective equipment is recommended, as its benefits outweigh the risks of neonatal infection. Recommendations are currently based on limited available data. More original studies on infected pregnant women are needed to establish totally evidence-based protocols of care for these patients.

3.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1159): 321-327, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158120

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly disrupted the well-established, traditional structure of medical education. Τhe new limitations of physical presence have accelerated the development of an online learning environment, comprising both of asynchronous and synchronous distance education, and the introduction of novel ways of student assessment. At the same time, this prolonged crisis had serious implications on the lives of medical students including their psychological well-being and the impact on their academic trajectories. The new reality has, on many occasions, triggered the 'acting up' of medical students as frontline healthcare staff, which has been perceived by many of them as a positive learning and contributing experience, and has led to a variety of responses from the educational institutions. All things considered, the urgency for rapid and novel adaptations to the new circumstances has functioned as a springboard for remarkable innovations in medical education,including the promotion of a more "evidence-based" approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024580

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: A considerable number of systematic reviews, with substantial heterogeneity regarding their methods and included populations, on the impact of COVID-19 on infected pregnant women and their neonates, has emerged. The aim was to describe the obstetric-perinatal and neonatal outcome of infected pregnant women and their newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) Methods: Three bibliographical databases were searched (last search: September 10, 2020). Quality assessment was performed using the AMSTAR-2 tool. Primary outcomes included mode of delivery, preterm delivery/labor, premature rupture of membranes (PROM/pPROM) and abortions/miscarriages. Outcomes were mainly presented as ranges. A separate analysis, including only moderate and high-quality systematic reviews, was also conducted. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020214447); (3) Results: Thirty-nine reviews were analyzed. Reported rates, regarding both preterm and term gestations, varied between 52.3 and 95.8% for cesarean sections; 4.2-44.7% for vaginal deliveries; 14.3-63.8% specifically for preterm deliveries and 22.7-32.2% for preterm labor; 5.3-12.7% for PROM and 6.4-16.1% for pPROM. Maternal anxiety for potential fetal infection contributed to abortion decisions, while SARS-CoV-2-related miscarriages could not be excluded. Maternal ICU admission and mechanical ventilation rates were 3-28.5% and 1.4-12%, respectively. Maternal mortality rate was <2%, while stillbirth, neonatal ICU admission and mortality rates were <2.5%, 3.1-76.9% and <3%, respectively. Neonatal PCR positivity rates ranged between 1.6% and 10%. After accounting for quality of studies, ranges of our primary outcomes remained almost unchanged, while among our secondary outcomes, maternal ICU admission (3-10%) and mechanical ventilation rates (1.4-5.5%) were found to be relatively lower; (4) Conclusions: Increased rates of cesarean sections and preterm birth rates were found, with iatrogenic reasons potentially involved. In cases of symptomatic women with confirmed infection, high maternal and neonatal ICU admission rates should raise some concerns. The probability of vertical transmission cannot be excluded. Further original studies on women from all trimesters are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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