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1.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-18, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTCognitive impairments figure prominently in COVID-19 survivors. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) improves functional outcomes reducing long-term cognitive deficits in several neurological and psychiatric conditions. Our case-control study investigates the efficacy of a CRT programme administered to COVID-19 survivors in the post-acute phase of the illness. Seventy-three COVID-19 survivors presenting cognitive impairments at one-month follow-up were enrolled. Among them, 15 patients were treated with a two-month CRT programme, and 30 non-treated patients were matched conditional to their baseline cognitive functioning. Cognitive functions were assessed before and after treatment. Depression and quality of life were also evaluated. Mixed model ANOVA revealed a significant effect over time of the CRT programme on global cognitive functioning (F = 4.56, p = 0.039), while no significant effect was observed in the untreated group. We observed a significant effect of the improvement in verbal fluency (χ2 = 7.20, p = 0.007) and executive functions (χ2 = 13.63, p < 0.001) on quality of life. A positive significant correlation was found between depressive symptomatology and verbal fluency (r = -0.35), working memory (r = -0.44), psychomotor coordination (r = -0.42), and executive functions (r = -0.33). Our results could pave the way to a plausible innovative treatment targeting cognitive impairments and ameliorating the quality of life of COVID-19 survivors.

2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837236

ABSTRACT

Objective To report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and Methods Patients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. Results A total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO2, age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO2 < 95% and BMI ≥ 33 Kg/m2 defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77–88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 € when compared with inpatient care. Conclusion Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7606, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830101

ABSTRACT

Infectious and inflammatory stimuli elicit the generation of chitinase-3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1), involved in tissue damage, repair and remodeling. We evaluated whether plasma CHI3L1 at disease onset predicts clinical outcome of patients with Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Blood from 191 prospectively followed COVID-19 patients were collected at hospital admission between March 18th and May 5th, 2020. Plasma from 80 survivors was collected one month post-discharge. Forty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Primary outcome was transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) or death. CHI3L1 was higher in COVID-19 patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with unfavorable outcome (41 patients admitted to ICU, 47 died) had significantly higher CHI3L1 levels than non-ICU survivors (p < 0.0001). CHI3L1 levels abated in survivors one month post-discharge, regardless of initial disease severity (p < 0.0001), although remaining higher than controls (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that CHI3L1 levels predict primary outcome independently of age, sex, comorbidities, degree of respiratory insufficiency and systemic inflammation or time from symptom onset to sampling (p < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis confirmed that patients with CHI3L1 levels above the median (361 ng/mL) had a poorer prognosis (log rank test, p < 0.0001). Plasma CHI3L1 is increased in COVID-19 patients and predicts adverse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitinases , Aftercare , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies
4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 846901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809460

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistent symptoms including dyspnea and functional impairment are common in COVID-19 survivors. Poor muscle quality (myosteatosis) associates with poor short-term outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this observational study was to assess the relationship between myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 and patient-reported outcomes at 6 months after discharge. Methods: Myosteatosis was diagnosed based on CT-derived skeletal muscle radiation attenuation (SM-RA) measured during hospitalization in 97 COVID-19 survivors who had available anthropometric and clinical data upon admission and at the 6-month follow-up after discharge. Dyspnea in daily activities was assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for dyspnea. Health-related quality of life was measured using the European quality of life questionnaire three-level version (EQ-5D-3L). Results: Characteristics of patients with (lowest sex- and age-specific tertile of SM-RA) or without myosteatosis during acute COVID-19 were similar. At 6 months, patients with myosteatosis had greater rates of obesity (48.4 vs. 27.7%, p = 0.046), abdominal obesity (80.0 vs. 47.6%, p = 0.003), dyspnea (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.021) and mobility problems (32.3 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.004). Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 was the only significant predictor of persistent dyspnea (OR 3.19 [95% C.I. 1.04; 9.87], p = 0.043) and mobility problems (OR 3.70 [95% C.I. 1.25; 10.95], p = 0.018) at 6 months at logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. Conclusion: Myosteatosis diagnosed during acute COVID-19 significantly predicts persistent dyspnea and mobility problems at 6 months after hospital discharge independent of age, sex, and body mass. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04318366].

5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chromogranin A (CgA) and its fragment vasostatin I (VS-I) are secreted in the blood by endocrine/neuroendocrine cells and regulate stress responses. Their involvement in Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has not been investigated. METHODS: CgA and VS-I plasma concentrations were measured at hospital admission from March to May 2020 in 190 patients. 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. CgA and VS-I levels relationship with demographics, comorbidities and disease severity was assessed through Mann Whitney U test or Spearman correlation test. Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier survival curves were performed to investigate the impact of the CgA and VS-I levels on in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Median CgA and VS-I levels were higher in patients than in healthy controls (CgA: 0.558 nM [interquartile range, IQR 0.358-1.046] vs 0.368 nM [IQR 0.288-0.490] respectively, p = 0.0017; VS-I: 0.357 nM [IQR 0.196-0.465] vs 0.144 nM [0.144-0.156] respectively, p<0.0001). Concentration of CgA, but not of VS-I, significantly increased in patients who died (n = 47) than in survivors (n = 143) (median 0.948 nM [IQR 0.514-1.754] vs 0.507 nM [IQR 0.343-0.785], p = 0.00026). Levels of CgA were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 1.077-1.522], p = 0.005) when adjusted for age, number of comorbidities, respiratory insufficiency degree, C-reactive protein levels and time from symptom onset to sampling. Kaplan Meier curves revealed a significantly increased mortality rate in patients with CgA levels above 0.558 nM (median value, log rank test, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Plasma CgA levels increase in COVID-19 patients and represent an early independent predictor of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chromogranin A , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
6.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 554-561, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with depressive psychopathology in survivors. Negative thinking styles are a core feature of major depression, fostering the experience of negative emotions and affects and hampering recovery. This cognitive vulnerability has been observed in medical conditions associated with depression, but never explored in post-COVID depression. METHODS: We studied 729 participants: 362 COVID-19 survivors, 73 inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and 294 healthy participants (HC). Severity of depression was self-rated on the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Neuropsychological bias toward negative emotional stimuli and the negative outlook on the self were tested in a self-description task, yielding latencies and frequencies of attribution of morally tuned elements. Dimensions of negative thinking and depressive cognitive style in evaluation of hypothetical events were measured on the Cognition Questionnaire (CQ). RESULTS: 22.4% COVID survivors self-rated depression above the clinical threshold. Frequencies and latencies of attribution of morally negative elements, and CQ scores, correlated between themselves and predicted ZSDS scores, with post-COVID depressed patients showing intermediate scores between the more severe MDD patients, and non-depressed post-COVID participants and HC. LIMITATIONS: Recruitment was in a single center, thus raising the possibility of population stratification. CONCLUSIONS: The breadth of self-reproach and depressive cognitive style in evaluating events showed the same association with severity of depression in MDD and in post-COVID depressed patients, distributing along a gradient of severity, thus suggesting that individual features of negative thinking styles are shared in these conditions, and should be addressed as treatment targets in depressed COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pessimism , Cognition , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Survivors
7.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733109

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the prevalence of respiratory sequelae of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors at 6 months after hospital discharge and develop a model to identify at-risk patients. Patients and Methods In this prospective cohort study, hospitalized, non-critical COVID-19 patients evaluated at 6-month follow-up between 26 August, 2020 and 16 December, 2020 were included. Primary outcome was respiratory dysfunction at 6 months, defined as at least one among tachypnea at rest, percent predicted 6-min walking distance at 6-min walking test (6MWT) ≤ 70%, pre-post 6MWT difference in Borg score ≥ 1 or a difference between pre- and post-6MWT oxygen saturation ≥ 5%. A nomogram-based multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict primary outcome. Validation relied on 2000-resample bootstrap. The model was compared to one based uniquely on degree of hypoxemia at admission. Results Overall, 316 patients were included, of whom 118 (37.3%) showed respiratory dysfunction at 6 months. The nomogram relied on sex, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, degree of hypoxemia at admission, and non-invasive ventilation. It was 73.0% (95% confidence interval 67.3–78.4%) accurate in predicting primary outcome and exhibited minimal departure from ideal prediction. Compared to the model including only hypoxemia at admission, the nomogram showed higher accuracy (73.0 vs 59.1%, P < 0.001) and greater net-benefit in decision curve analyses. When the model included also respiratory data at 1 month, it yielded better accuracy (78.2 vs. 73.2%) and more favorable net-benefit than the original model. Conclusion The newly developed nomograms accurately identify patients at risk of persistent respiratory dysfunction and may help inform clinical priorities.

8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: acute illnesses, like COVID-19, can act as a catabolic stimulus on muscles. So far, no study has evaluated muscle mass and quality through limb ultrasound in post-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: cross sectional observational study, including patients seen one month after hospital discharge for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The patients underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Moreover, we performed dominant medial gastrocnemius ultrasound (US) to characterize their muscle mass and quality. RESULTS: two hundred fifty-nine individuals (median age 67, 59.8% males) were included in the study. COVID-19 survivors with reduced muscle strength had a lower muscle US thickness (1.6 versus 1.73 cm, p =0.02) and a higher muscle stiffness (87 versus 76.3, p = 0.004) compared to patients with normal muscle strength. Also, patients with reduced Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores had a lower muscle US thickness (1.3 versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.01) and a higher muscle stiffness (104.9 versus 81.07, p = 0.04) compared to individuals with normal SPPB scores. The finding of increased muscle stiffness was also confirmed in patients with a pathological value (≥ 4) at the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F (103.0 versus 79.55, p < 0.001). Muscle stiffness emerged as a significant predictor of probable sarcopenia (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.002 - 1.04, p = 0.03). The optimal ultrasound cut-offs for probable sarcopenia were 1.51 cm for muscle thickness (p= 0.017) and 73.95 for muscle stiffness (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: we described muscle ultrasound characteristics in post COVID-19 patients. Muscle ultrasound could be an innovative tool to assess muscle mass and quality in this population. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by future studies comparing muscle ultrasound with already validated techniques for measuring muscle mass and quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Extremities/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography
9.
J Neurol ; 2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore cognitive, EEG, and MRI features in COVID-19 survivors up to 10 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: Adult patients with a recent diagnosis of COVID-19 and reporting subsequent cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological assessment and 19-channel-EEG within 2 months (baseline, N = 49) and 10 months (follow-up, N = 33) after hospital discharge. A brain MRI was obtained for 36 patients at baseline. Matched healthy controls were included. Using eLORETA, EEG regional current densities and linear lagged connectivity values were estimated. Total brain and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volumes were measured. Clinical and instrumental data were evaluated between patients and controls at baseline, and within patient whole group and with/without dysgeusia/hyposmia subgroups over time. Correlations among findings at each timepoint were computed. RESULTS: At baseline, 53% and 28% of patients showed cognitive and psychopathological disturbances, respectively, with executive dysfunctions correlating with acute-phase respiratory distress. Compared to healthy controls, patients also showed higher regional current density and connectivity at delta band, correlating with executive performances, and greater WMH load, correlating with verbal memory deficits. A reduction of cognitive impairment and delta band EEG connectivity were observed over time, while psychopathological symptoms persisted. Patients with acute dysgeusia/hyposmia showed lower improvement at memory tests than those without. Lower EEG delta band at baseline predicted worse cognitive functioning at follow-up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 patients showed interrelated cognitive, EEG, and MRI abnormalities 2 months after hospital discharge. Cognitive and EEG findings improved at 10 months. Dysgeusia and hyposmia during acute COVID-19 were related with increased vulnerability in memory functions over time.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317281

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglyceamia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. Methods: . We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: . At admission,, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87–116) to 100 (92–114) mg/dL;p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories was analysed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185;from 100 (86–109) to 94 (88–99) mg/dL;p < 0.001];ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85–96) to 106 (102–113) mg/dl;p < 0.001];iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94–138) to 134 (126–143) mg/dl;p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. Conclusions: . Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

11.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

12.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 18: 100387, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654092

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric sequelae substantially contribute to the post-acute burden of disease associated with COVID-19, persisting months after clearance of the virus. Brain imaging shows white matter (WM) hypodensities/hyperintensities, and the involvement of grey matter (GM) in prefrontal, anterior cingulate (ACC) and insular cortex after COVID, but little is known about brain correlates of persistent psychopathology. With a multimodal approach, we studied whole brain voxel-based morphometry, diffusion-tensor imaging, and resting-state connectivity, to correlate MRI measures with depression and post-traumatic distress (PTSD) in 42 COVID-19 survivors without brain lesions, at 90.59 â€‹± â€‹54.66 days after COVID. Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) measured in the emergency department, which reflects the immune response and systemic inflammation based on peripheral lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, predicted worse self-rated depression and PTSD, widespread lower diffusivity along the main axis of WM tracts, and abnormal functional connectivity (FC) among resting state networks. Self-rated depression and PTSD inversely correlated with GM volumes in ACC and insula, axial diffusivity, and associated with FC. We observed overlapping associations between severity of inflammation during acute COVID-19, brain structure and function, and severity of depression and post-traumatic distress in survivors, thus warranting interest for further study of brain correlates of the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Beyond COVID-19, these findings support the hypothesis that regional GM, WM microstructure, and FC could mediate the relationship between a medical illness and its psychopathological sequelae, and are in agreement with current perspectives on the brain structural and functional underpinnings of depressive psychopathology.

13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(5): e33-e42, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An unprecedented wave of patients with acute respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) hit emergency departments (EDs) in Lombardy, starting in the second half of February 2020. This study describes the direct and indirect impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on an urban major-hospital ED. METHODS: Data regarding all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting from February 1 to March 31, 2020, were prospectively collected, while data regarding non-COVID patients presenting within the same period in 2019 were retrospectively retrieved. RESULTS: ED attendance dropped by 37% in 2020. Two-thirds of this reduction occurred early after the identification of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Lombardy, before lockdown measures were enforced. Hospital admissions of non-COVID patients fell by 26%. During the peak of COVID-19 attendance, the ED faced an extraordinary increase in: patients needing oxygen (+239%) or noninvasive ventilation (+725%), transfers to the intensive care unit (+57%), and in-hospital mortality (+309%), compared with the same period in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak determined an unprecedented upsurge in respiratory failure cases and mortality. Fear of contagion triggered a spontaneous, marked reduction of ED attendance, and, presumably, some as yet unknown quantity of missed or delayed diagnoses for conditions other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fear , Humans , Retrospective Studies
14.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 47(2): 147-150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of effects, including acute kidney injury (AKI) in up to 40% of hospitalized patients. Given the established relationship between AKI and poor prognosis, whether AKI might be a prognostic indicator for patients admitted to the hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection would allow for a straightforward risk stratification of these patients. METHODS: We analyzed data of 623 patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, IT) between February 25 and April 19, 2020, for laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incidence of AKI at hospital admission was calculated, with AKI defined according to the KDIGO criteria. Multivariable Cox regression models assessed the association between AKI and overall mortality and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Overall, 108 (17%) patients had AKI at hospital admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a median follow-up for survivors of 14 days (interquartile range: 8, 23), 123 patients died, while 84 patients were admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for confounders, patients who had AKI at hospital admission were at increased risk of overall mortality compared to those who did not have AKI (hazards ratio [HR]: 2.00; p = 0.0004), whereas we did not find evidence of an association between AKI and ICU admission (HR: 0.95; p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that AKI might be an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and as such, given its readily availability, it might be used to improve risk stratification at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(1): e348-e360, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592846

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: A high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients has been reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between hypovitaminosis D and fat body mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 severity, have been widely recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (GLU), and disease severity. METHODS: Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD metabolism. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, plasma GLU levels, BMI, and inflammatory parameters were evaluated at admission. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ng/mL and VD deficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD deficiency was found more frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations between VD and plasma GLU, BMI, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6. Patients with both hypovitaminosis D and diabetes mellitus, as well those with hypovitaminosis D and overweight, were more frequently affected by a severe disease with worse inflammatory response and respiratory parameters, compared to those without or just one of these conditions. CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels with blood GLU and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD deficiency might be a novel common pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and adiposity on disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
16.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 145: 118-124, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525861

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors are at increased risk of persistent psychopathology after the infection. Despite long-term sequelae are an increasing concern, long-term neuropsychiatric consequences remain largely unclear. This cohort study aimed at investigating the psychopathological impact of COVID-19 in Italy one year after infection, outlining the trajectory of symptomatology at one, six-, and twelve-months follow-up. We evaluated 402, 216, and 192 COVID-19 survivors respectively at one, six, and 12 months. A subgroup of 95 patients was evaluated longitudinally both at one, six, and 12 months. Validated self-report questionnaires were administered to assess depression, fatigue, anxiety, and post-traumatic distress. Socio-demographics and setting of care information were gathered for each participant. At six and twelve months, respectively 94 (44%) and 86 (45%) patients self-rated in the clinical range in at least one psychopathological dimension. Pathological fatigue at twelve months was detected in 63 patients (33%). Considering the longitudinal cohort an interaction effect of sex and time was observed for depression (F = 8.63, p < 0.001) and anxiety (F = 5.42, p = 0.005) with males showing a significant increasing trend of symptoms, whereas an opposite course was observed in females. High prevalence of psychiatric sequelae six and 12 months after COVID-19 was reported for the first time. These findings confirm the need to provide integrated multidisciplinary services to properly address long-lasting mental health sequelae of COVID-19 and to treat them with the aim of reducing the disease burden and related years of life lived with disability.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 766486, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518500

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which may lead to long-lasting pulmonary sequelae in the survivors. COVID-19 shares common molecular signatures with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including pro-angiogenic and tissue-remodeling mechanisms mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R). Nintedanib mainly targets these factors and is approved for ILDs. Therefore, we administered nintedanib through compassionate use to three patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring extra-corporeal membrane-oxygenation (ECMO). Here, we describe our experience in an attempt to explore the role of nintedanib in lung recovery in COVID-19. Three obese patients aged between 42 and 52 years were started on nintedanib due to difficulty in obtaining lung function restoration and weaning from ECMO support following the removal of orotracheal intubation (OTI). Soon after the start of the treatment, systemic inflammation and respiratory function rapidly improved and ECMO support was withdrawn. Serial chest CT scans confirmed the progressive lung amelioration, also reflected by functional tests during follow-up. Nintedanib was well-tolerated by all the three patients at the dosage used for ILDs and continued for 2-3 months based on drug availability. Although caution in interpreting events is required; it is tempting to speculate that nintedanib may have contributed to modulate lung inflammation and remodeling and to sustain lung repair. Altogether, nintedanib appears as a promising agent in patients with severe COVID-19 and delayed respiratory function recovery, for whom molecularly targeted therapies are still lacking. Clinical trials are necessary to confirm our observations.

19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29504, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on the health care system globally. The metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, was one of the regions most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Risk prediction models developed by combining administrative databases and basic clinical data are needed to stratify individual patient risk for public health purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a stratification tool aimed at improving COVID-19 patient management and health care organization. METHODS: A predictive algorithm was developed and applied to 36,834 patients with COVID-19 in Italy between March 8 and the October 9, 2020, in order to foresee their risk of hospitalization. Exposures considered were age, sex, comorbidities, and symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg, vomiting, cough, fever, diarrhea, myalgia, asthenia, headache, anosmia, ageusia, and dyspnea). The outcome was hospitalizations and emergency department admissions for COVID-19. Discrimination and calibration of the model were also assessed. RESULTS: The predictive model showed a good fit for predicting COVID-19 hospitalization (C-index 0.79) and a good overall prediction accuracy (Brier score 0.14). The model was well calibrated (intercept -0.0028, slope 0.9970). Based on these results, 118,804 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 25 to December 11, 2020, were stratified into low, medium, and high risk for COVID-19 severity. Among the overall study population, 67,030 (56.42%) were classified as low-risk patients; 43,886 (36.94%), as medium-risk patients; and 7888 (6.64%), as high-risk patients. In all, 89.37% (106,179/118,804) of the overall study population was being assisted at home, 9% (10,695/118,804) was hospitalized, and 1.62% (1930/118,804) died. Among those assisted at home, most people (63,983/106,179, 60.26%) were classified as low risk, whereas only 3.63% (3858/106,179) were classified at high risk. According to ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of being hospitalized or dead was 5.0 (95% CI 4.6-5.4) among high-risk patients and 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) among medium-risk patients, as compared to low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: A simple monitoring system, based on primary care data sets linked to COVID-19 testing results, hospital admissions data, and death records may assist in the proper planning and allocation of patients and resources during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
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