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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 12(1):001-028, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1703120


The novel human coronavirus (CoV) 2019, similar to previous severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-1 outbreaks, has posed the unprecedented challenges that have shaped global action on preventive and easy to employ measures and policies, including regular disinfection. There is an indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents, which may pose toxicity to humans, environmental hazards, and, in some cases, development antiviral drug resistance. This review comprehensively highlights the physical and chemical countermeasures applied to prevent various CoV infections and their potential toxicity on humans and the environment, as well as the danger of developing drug resistance. Literature information was sourced from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using Google Scholars and Free Full PDF as search engines. Articles written in the English language were retrieved and included in the study. Researches covering the literature on physical and chemical severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 preventive measures, their toxicity, and possible ways of developing drug resistance were also discussed. The literature review reveals that physical inactivation under the influence of temperature, humidity, and light, especially ultraviolet-C radiation, has proven effective in reducing the spread of CoV infections. Similarly, chemical countermeasures such as the use of alcohol- and iodine-based disinfecting agents have demonstrated inhibitory potentials of the viruses on surfaces depending on nature, dose, and exposure time. The inactivation occurs through the interference of these agents with the lipid envelope, thereby disrupting the viral activity. A vast majority of the antimicrobial agents are reported to contain corrosive chemicals that are toxic to humans, especially children, and the environment. The toxicity is due to the unhealthy accumulation and pollution caused by the inappropriate disposal of biomedical waste. This study showed that chemicals might have long-term effects on public health, such as reproductive disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancers, skin damage, and central nervous system impairment. Therefore, further research on long-term preventive alternatives such as the formulation of these agents with natural products as active ingredients is necessary to mitigate the effects of alcohol- and iodine-based chemicals on humans and the environment. © 2022. Sani Yahaya Najib et al.

Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research ; 5(1):165-177, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1090087


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic ravages the globe causing unprecedented health and economic challenges. As the world prospects for a cure, scientists are looking critically at strategic protein targets within the SARS-CoV-2 that have therapeutic significance. The Helicase is one of such targets and it is an enzyme that affects all facets of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA metabolism. This study is aimed at identifying small molecules from natural products that have strong binding affinity with and exhibit inhibitory activity against an allosteric site (Pocket 26) on the SARS-CoV-2 Helicase. The molecular docking simulations of SARS-CoV-2 Helicase (QHD43415-12.pdb) against a library of small molecules obtained from edible African plants was executed using PyRx. Triphenylmethane, which had a docking score of-7.4 kcal/mol on SARS CoV-2 Helicase was chosen as a reference compound. Based on the molecular descriptors of the compounds as provided by PubChem, a virtual screening for oral bioavailability was performed. Further screening for molar refractivity, pharmacokinetic properties, and bioactivity were performed using SwissADME, pkCSM, and Molinspiration webservers respectively. Molecular dynamic simulation and analyses were performed using the Galaxy webserver which uses the GROMACS software. The lead compounds are Gibberellin A12, A20, and A51 obtained from Green peas and the Okra plant. Gibberellin A20 and A51 were predicted to perform better than the standard and Gibberellin A51 showed the greatest inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 Helicase. © 2021 Rowaiye et al and the authors.