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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226335, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981507

ABSTRACT

Importance: Antibody responses elicited by current messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines decline rapidly and require repeated boosting. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity and durability of heterologous and homologous prime-boost regimens involving the adenovirus vector vaccine Ad26.COV2.S and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, 68 individuals who were vaccinated at least 6 months previously with 2 immunizations of BNT162b2 were boosted with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Enrollment of participants occurred from August 12, 2021, to October 25, 2021, and this study involved 4 months of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Participants who were previously vaccinated with BNT162b2 received a boost with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses were assessed by neutralizing, binding, and functional antibody responses for 16 weeks following the boost. CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining assays. Results: Among 68 participants who were originally vaccinated with BNT162b2 and boosted with Ad26.COV2.S (41 participants; median [range] age, 36 [23-84] years) or BNT162b2 (27 participants; median [range] age, 35 [23-76] years), 56 participants (82%) were female, 7 (10%) were Asian, 4 (6%) were Black, 4 (6%) were Hispanic or Latino, 3 (4%) were more than 1 race, and 53 (78%) were White. Both vaccines were found to be associated with increased humoral and cellular immune responses, including against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. BNT162b2 boosting was associated with a rapid increase of Omicron neutralizing antibodies that peaked at a median (IQR) titer of 1018 (699-1646) at week 2 and declined by 6.9-fold to a median (IQR) titer of 148 (95-266) by week 16. Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with increased Omicron neutralizing antibodies titers that peaked at a median (IQR) of 859 (467-1838) week 4 and declined by 2.1-fold to a median (IQR) of 403 (208-1130) by week 16. Conclusions and Relevance: Heterologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with durable humoral and cellular immune responses in individuals who originally received the BNT162b2 vaccine. These data suggest potential benefits of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Multiple lineages of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) have emerged, and BA.1 and BA.2 have demonstrated substantial escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). BA.2.12.1 has now become dominant in the United States, and BA.4 and BA.5 have become dominant in South Africa. Our data show that BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 substantially escape NAbs induced by both vaccination and infection. Moreover, BA.4/BA.5 NAb titers, and to lesser extent BA.2.12.1 NAb titers, were lower than BA.1 and BA.2 NAb titers, suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has continued to evolve with increasing neutralization escape. These findings have important public health implications and provide immunologic context for the current surges with BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 in populations with high rates of vaccination and BA.1/BA.2 infection.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(641): eabn6150, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807307

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have been reported frequently in vaccinated individuals with waning immunity. In particular, a cluster of over 1000 infections with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant was identified in a predominantly fully vaccinated population in Provincetown, Massachusetts in July 2021. In this study, vaccinated individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 16) demonstrated substantially higher serum antibody responses than vaccinated individuals who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 23), including 32-fold higher binding antibody titers and 31-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Vaccinated individuals who tested positive also showed higher mucosal antibody responses in nasal secretions and higher spike protein-specific CD8+ T cell responses in peripheral blood than did vaccinated individuals who tested negative. These data demonstrate that fully vaccinated individuals developed robust anamnestic antibody and T cell responses after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Moreover, these findings suggest that population immunity will likely increase over time by a combination of widespread vaccination and breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1124-1128, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774388

ABSTRACT

Individuals on immunosuppressive (IS) therapy have increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and delayed viral clearance may lead to new viral variants. IS therapy reduces antibody responses following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination; however, a comprehensive assessment of vaccine immunogenicity is lacking. Here we show that IS therapy reduced neutralizing, binding, and nonneutralizing antibody functions in addition to CD4 and CD8 T-cell interferon-γ responses following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared to immunocompetent individuals. Moreover, IS therapy reduced cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the standard COVID-19 mRNA vaccine regimens will likely not provide optimal protection in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327474

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has three major lineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 1 . BA.1 rapidly became dominant and has demonstrated substantial escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by vaccination 2-4 . BA.2 has recently increased in frequency in multiple regions of the world, suggesting that BA.2 has a selective advantage over BA.1. BA.1 and BA.2 share multiple common mutations, but both also have unique mutations 1 ( Fig. 1A ). The ability of BA.2 to evade NAbs induced by vaccination or infection has not yet been reported. We evaluated WA1/2020, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2 NAbs in 24 individuals who were vaccinated and boosted with the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine 5 and in 8 individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 ( Table S1 ).

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296116

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that a third dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine increased antibody titers and protective efficacy. Here we compare humoral and cellular immune responses in 65 individuals who were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine and were boosted after at least 6 months with either Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson;N=41) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer;N=24).

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293488

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that a third dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine increased antibody titers and protective efficacy. Here we compare humoral and cellular immune responses in 65 individuals who were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine and were boosted after at least 6 months with either Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson;N=41) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer;N=24).

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