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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2217436, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898503

ABSTRACT

Importance: Public health measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic had widespread effects on population behaviors, transmission of infectious diseases, and exposures to environmental pollutants. This provided an opportunity to study how these factors potentially influenced the incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD), a self-limited pediatric vasculitis of unknown etiology. Objectives: To examine the change in KD incidence across the United States and evaluate whether public health measures affected the prevalence of KD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included consecutive, unselected patients with KD who were diagnosed between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020 (multicenter cohort with 28 pediatric centers), and a detailed analysis of patients with KD who were diagnosed between January 1, 2002, and November 15, 2021 (Rady Children's Hospital San Diego [RCHSD]). Main Outcomes and Measures: For the multicenter cohort, the date of fever onset for each patient with KD was collected. For RCHSD, detailed demographic and clinical data as well as publicly available, anonymized mobile phone data and median household income by census block group were collected. The study hypothesis was that public health measures undertaken during the pandemic would reduce exposure to the airborne trigger(s) of KD and that communities with high shelter-in-place compliance would experience the greatest decrease in KD incidence. Results: A total of 2461 KD cases were included in the multicenter study (2018: 894; 2019: 905; 2020: 646), and 1461 cases (median [IQR] age, 2.8 years [1.4-4.9 years]; 900 [61.6%] males; 220 [15.1%] Asian, 512 [35.0%] Hispanic, and 338 [23.1%] White children) from RCHSD between 2002 and 2021 were also included. The 28.2% decline in KD cases nationally during 2020 (646 cases) compared with 2018 (894 cases) and 2019 (905 cases) was uneven across the United States. For RCHSD, there was a disproportionate decline in KD cases in 2020 to 2021 compared with the mean (SD) number of cases in earlier years for children aged 1 to 5 years (22 vs 44.9 [9.9]; P = .02), male children (21 vs 47.6 [10.0]; P = .01), and Asian children (4 vs 11.8 [4.4]; P = .046). Mobility data did not suggest that shelter-in-place measures were associated with the number of KD cases. Clinical features including strawberry tongue, enlarged cervical lymph node, and subacute periungual desquamation were decreased during 2020 compared with the baseline period (strawberry tongue: 39% vs 63%; P = .04; enlarged lymph node: 21% vs 32%; P = .09; periungual desquamation: 47% vs 58%; P = .16). School closures, masking mandates, decreased ambient pollution, and decreased circulation of respiratory viruses all overlapped to different extents with the period of decreased KD cases. KD in San Diego rebounded in the spring of 2021, coincident with lifting of mask mandates. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of epidemiological and clinical features of KD during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, KD cases fell and remained low during the period of masking and school closure. Mobility data indicated that differential intensity of sheltering in place was not associated with KD incidence. These findings suggest that social behavior is associated with exposure to the agent(s) that trigger KD and are consistent with a respiratory portal of entry for the agent(s).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
2.
Curr Pediatr Rep ; 9(4): 83-92, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813901

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: We highlight the new clinical entity multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), the progress in understanding its immunopathogenesis, and compare and contrast the clinical and immunologic features of MIS-C with Kawasaki disease (KD). Recent Findings: Studies show immune dysregulation in MIS-C including T lymphocyte depletion and activation, T cell receptor Vbeta skewing, elevated plasmablast frequencies, increased markers of vascular pathology, and decreased numbers and functional profiles of antigen-presenting cells. Summary: MIS-C is a late manifestation of infection with SARS-CoV-2 associated with marked immune activation and many potential mechanisms of immunopathogenesis. MIS-C and KD have clinical similarities but are distinct. Myocardial dysfunction with or without mild coronary artery dilation can occur in MIS-C but generally corrects within weeks. In contrast, the coronary arteries are the primary target in KD, and coronary artery sequelae can be lifelong. Supportive care and anti-inflammatory therapy appear to hasten improvement in children with MIS-C, and there is hope that vaccines will prevent its development.

4.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 86, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac evaluations, including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and biomarker results, are needed in children during mid-term recovery after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of CMR abnormalities 1-3 months after recovery is over 50% in older adults and has ranged between 1 and 15% in college athletes. Abnormal cardiac biomarkers are common in adults, even during recovery. METHODS: We performed CMR imaging in a prospectively-recruited pediatric cohort recovered from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We obtained CMR data and serum biomarkers. We compared these results to age-matched control patients, imaged prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: CMR was performed in 17 children (13.9 years, all ≤ 18 years) and 29 age-matched control patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cases were recruited with symptomatic COVID-19 (11/17, 65%) or MIS-C (6/17, 35%) and studied an average of 2 months after diagnosis. All COVID-19 patients had been symptomatic with fever (73%), vomiting/diarrhea (64%), or breathing difficulty (55%) during infection. Left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions were indistinguishable between cases and controls (p = 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). Mean native global T1, global T2 values and segmental T2 maximum values were also not statistically different from control patients (p ≥ 0.06 for each). NT-proBNP and troponin levels were normal in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Children prospectively recruited following SARS-CoV-2 infection had normal CMR and cardiac biomarker evaluations during mid-term recovery. Trial Registration Not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
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