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1.
Global Health Science & Practice ; 10(4):30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding community health workers' (CHWs) experiences of sustaining routine health care promotion and provision activities as well as their challenges in adopting new responsibilities within a dynamic context is critical. This study explored the roles and perspectives of CHWs within the government-led coronavirus disease (COVID-19) community health response in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study to explore the government's response to COVID-19 and its association with community health programming through a telephone-based survey of 370 government-employed CHWs. We also conducted 28 in-depth interviews with policy makers, program managers, CHW supervisors, and CHWs. We conducted exploratory and regression analysis of survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data. RESULTS: The majority of CHWs reported receiving training related to COVID-19, including community-based prevention strategies from government and nongovernment stakeholders. Access to infection prevention supplies differed significantly by CHW cadre, and perspectives on the provision of adequate supplies varied qualitatively. CHWs reported slight decreases in routine work across all health areas early in the pandemic, and a majority reported added COVID-19-related responsibilities as the pandemic continued, including advising on signs/symptoms in their communities and referring suspected cases of COVID-19 for advanced facility care. Regression analyses showed that government support and integration of CHWs into their response-particularly being trained on COVID-19-predicted CHW capacity to advise communities on symptoms and provide routine services. DISCUSSION: Government-employed CHWs in Bangladesh continued to provide health education and routine services in their communities despite pandemic- and response-related challenges. Varied support and differential CHW cadre-specific effects on COVID-19 awareness building in the community, referral, and routine service provision merit attention in Bangladesh's pluralistic community health system. While COVID-19 infection and government-mandated lockdowns restricted CHW mobility, the workers' capacity to continue service provision and education can be leveraged in vaccination and surveillance efforts moving forward.

2.
Gender and the Politics of Disaster Recovery: Dealing with the Aftermath ; : 1-256, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025014

ABSTRACT

Drawing a transdisciplinary perspective, this book investigates the ways in which gender intersect with rebuilding and post-disaster recovery process. It shows how climate-induced disasters as well as the recent COVID-19 pandemic have impacted human lives and livelihoods across various global socioeconomic conditions, sociopolitical conditions, and the gendered relationships from the Global South perspective. From the real experiences of the people vulnerable to disasters, this book identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the post-disaster management in different contexts. The varied roles and responsibilities of men and women in different countries are also examined. It is often hard to understand how local and global politics are involved in humanitarian aid. This book also shows how lower-income and under-privileged communities are deprived of their right to access relief and rehabilitation due to political involvement. This text also highlights effective methods of policy implementation for achieving sustainable recovery from these humanitarian crises. It will assist strategy planners and policymakers to focus on gender-based barriers and political hindrances as well as geological and socioeconomic factors in planning inclusive post-disaster activities. The book will be of interest to researchers, postgraduate students and scholars in the fields of Sociology, Social Anthropology, Development Studies, Gender and Cultural Studies, Area Studies, Human Geography, Disaster Management, Forestry and Environmental Science. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Sajal Roy. All rights reserved.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:971-972, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009130

ABSTRACT

Background: Enpatoran is a selective and potent dual toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 inhibitor in development for the treatment of cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (CLE/SLE). Enpatoran inhibits TLR7/8 activation in vitro and suppresses disease activity in lupus mouse models.1 Enpatoran was well tolerated and had linear pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in healthy volunteers.2 As TLR7/8 mediate immune responses to single-stranded RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, it was postulated that enpatoran may prevent hyperinfammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19. Objectives: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an exploratory Phase II trial to assess safety and determine whether enpatoran prevents clinical deterioration in patients (pts) hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. PK and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enpatoran were also evaluated. Methods: ANEMONE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-con-trolled study conducted in Brazil, the Philippines, and the USA (NCT04448756). Pts aged 18-75 years, hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia (WHO 9-point scale score =4) but not mechanically ventilated, with SpO2 <94% and PaO2/FiO2 ≥150 (FiO2 maximum 0.4) were eligible. Those with a history of uncontrolled illness, active/unstable cardiovascular disease and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were excluded. Pts received PBO or enpatoran (50 or 100 mg twice daily [BID]) for 14 days, with monitoring to Day 28 and safety follow-up to Day 60. Primary outcomes were safety and time to recovery (WHO 9-point scale ≤3). Clinical deterioration (time to clinical status >4, WHO 9-point scale) was a secondary outcome. Exploratory endpoints were enpatoran and biomarker concentrations (cytokines, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer and interferon gene signature [IFN-GS] scores) assessed over time. Results: 149 pts received either PBO (n=49), or enpatoran 50 mg (n=54) or 100 mg (n=46) BID;88% completed treatment and 86% received concomitant steroids. Median age was 50 years (77% <60 years old), 66% were male, and 50% had ≥1 comorbidity (40% hypertension, 24% diabetes). Overall, 59% pts reported a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) with three non-treatment-related deaths;11% reported a treatment-related TEAE. The proportion of pts in the enpatoran group reporting serious TEAEs was low (50 mg BID 9%;100 mg BID 2%) vs PBO (18%). Gastrointestinal disorders were most common (PBO 8%;50 mg BID 28%;100 mg BID 9%). The primary outcome of time to recovery with enpatoran vs PBO was not met;medians were 3.4-3.9 days. A positive signal in time to clinical deterioration from Day 1 through Day 28 was observed;hazard ratios [95% CI] for enpatoran vs PBO were 0.39 [0.13, 1.15] (50 mg BID) and 0.30 [0.08, 1.08] (100 mg BID). Mean enpatoran exposure was dose-proportional, and PK properties were within expectations. The median (quartile [Q]1-Q3) interleukin 6 (IL-6), CRP and D-dimer baseline concentration across the groups were 5.7 (4.0-13.5) pg/mL, 30.04 (11.40-98.02) and 0.62 (0.39-1.01) mg/L, respectively. Baseline IFN-GS scores were similar across groups. Conclusion: The ANEMONE trial was the frst to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a TLR7/8 inhibitor in an infectious disease for preventing cytokine storm. Enpa-toran up to 100 mg BID for 14 days was well tolerated by patients acutely ill with COVID-19 pneumonia. Time to recovery was not improved with enpatoran, perhaps due to the younger age of patients who had fewer comorbidities compared to those in similar COVID-19 trials. However, there was less likelihood for clinical deterioration with enpatoran than placebo. This trial provides important safety, tolerability, PK and PD data supporting continued development of enpatoran in SLE and CLE (NCT04647708, NCT05162586).

5.
Journal of Further and Higher Education ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1996933

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has recently driven a shift in formal education environments through the transition from on-campus to online learning. The urgency of this transition has challenged the traditional perception of what a higher education experience should look like for educators and higher education institutions. However, flexibility in the delivery of formal education environments is not new. This paper explores the development of flexibility as a concept within higher education against an established flexibility framework. This paper adapts the 'Roberts Model' to reflect contemporary definitions of flexibility and uses this adapted framework to evaluate 12 online courses to validate/moderate. It then considers the implications for institutions who are increasingly exploring online delivery models appropriate for the contemporary student.

6.
RAIRO - Operations Research ; 56(4):2245-2275, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1972684

ABSTRACT

Carbon and Sulfur dioxides emissions are the key issues of global warming that affects on human health. Emissions cap- and -trade policy is a key mechanism implemented in several countries to reduce the emissions. Nowadays, public gathering is restricted due to the pandemic situation caused by COVID-19. As a result, people are facing huge problems in their regular activities and lifestyle. During the lockdown periods, demands for few merchandises decrease and the deterioration rate increases. Moreover, because of the unavailability of raw materials and labours during the lockdown, shortages occur at the manufacturing company. Keeping these problems in mind, a multi-objective sustainable economic production quantity model is proposed with partially back-ordering shortages, in which the effects of sustainability are investigated. To handle the demand fluctuation throughout the current pandemic, emergency level dependent demand rate is assumed. To reduce greenhouse gases emissions and deterioration rate, investments in green technology and preservation technology efforts are used. The objectives of this study are to maximize the manufacturera s profit and minimize the greenhouse gases emissions for producing green products. The multi-objective model is solved by utilizing the fuzzy goal programming approach. The mathematical model is illustrated by four numerical examples. The main finding of the work is that under both green and preservation technologies investments, a sustainable model with partially back-ordering shortages and lockdown level dependent demand rate decreases justifiable greenhouse gases emissions and increases the producta s greening level. The results indicate that the system profit is increased by 16.1% by investing in both preservation and green technology. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed along with some managerial insights for practitioners. Finally, the paper is ended with conclusions and future research tips. ©

7.
Specialusis Ugdymas ; 1(43):1225-1236, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1970385

ABSTRACT

With the growth of technology, the concept of online learning has grown in popularity. The worldwide epidemic situation (Covid 19) has increased the use of online learning not just in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), but also at all levels of education (ISED levels). In these hard times, technical advancements have played a greater role in creating awareness of the existence of online learning which has evolved as an alternate avenue for gaining and disseminating knowledge in a systematic way. In this paper we investigate to detect the sentiment dynamics (SD) of tweets related to online education available on twitter platform and deduce conclusions about its impact on student’s emotions. Over one lakh subjective tweets about the world's emerging online education system have been gathered via Twitter. Sentiment analysis was performed on the gathered dataset using the combination of dictionary-based and statistical-based approaches. Based on the findings of this analysis, we can infer the impact of online education and how people's attitudes have changed as a result of changes in the educational system. As a result, we would like to present a better comprehension of the sentiment dynamics of online education adoption. © 2022. Specialusis Ugdymas. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology ; 36:70-71, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968110

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Alprazolam is a high potency and short-acting anxiolytic benzodiazepine. Alprazolam was one of the most misused benzodiazepines during the first lockdown related to the Covid-19 pandemic [1]. Thus, an evaluation of the abuse of alprazolam was requested by the French Medicines Agency. Material and methods: Analysis of the epidemiological tools of the French Addictovigilance network (FAN) over the period 2011-2020: spontaneous notifications (NotS), supplemented by data collected in addictology care centers (OPPIDUM), false prescriptions (OSIAP), substance-related deaths (DRAMES), and chemical submission data. Results: During the study period, among the 675 NotS analysed, women were slightly in the majority (51.7%), and the median age of users was 39 years. The desired effects were the intensification of the therapeutic or recreational effects, a euphoric effect and the management of withdrawal from other substances (opioids, psychostimulants). Regarding tools, a male predominance (60-72%) was observed with an age of approximately 35-39 years. Alprazolam was the 3rd benzodiazepine listed in OPPIDUM after diazepam and oxazepam. Analysis of NotS and OPPIDUM showed a recent increase in the combination of alprazolam and opioids. In DRAMES, alprazolam was found in 10 deaths/11. Regarding CHEMICAL SUBMISSION, alprazolam was the 1st benzodiazepine reported in 2019. Finally, in the OSIAP survey, alprazolam was in 2020 the 5th drug cited and the first benzodiazepine ahead of bromazepam, diazepam and oxazepam (citation rate: 7.8%, slightly increasing since 2019). It should also be noted a rejuvenation of this population and an increase in the proportion of men during the study period. Discussion/Conclusion: Analysis of FAN data showed an increase in criteria for abuse: false prescriptions and users seen in drug addiction care centres. In addition, the increase of the alprazolam-opioid combination and the significant part of this association in deaths constitute a signal already observed in the international literature and to be investigated [2].

9.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry ; 64(4):418-422, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957518

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdown enforced distressed reverse migration in Sundarban, which caused an unprecedented population addition to the already devastated fragile Sundarban ecosystem. Acute poverty and food crisis prompted many migrants to explore forest-based living, thus enhancing fatal human-tiger conflicts. Families of deceased migrants face significant mental health trauma and catastrophic psychosocial consequences.

10.
Journal of Gender-Based Violence ; 6(2):315-330, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1951488

ABSTRACT

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on women and on Black and minoritised groups has highlighted the gendered and intersectional nature of the pandemic where structural inequality has reproduced disproportionately and exacerbated existing gendered and racialised inequalities. The pandemic and subsequent lockdowns led to an increase in domestic violence and abuse;noted to be disproportionately affected at multiple interlocking levels, home and the wider structural context constituted sites of violence for Black and minoritised survivors. Not only were women being subjected to heightened levels of violence and expanded coercive control but they faced greater constraints in seeking help. The decommissioning and closure of Black and minoritised organisations at a disproportionate level under austerity, inequitable funding structures and the simultaneous reinforcement of a hostile immigration environment have closed the door to safety for many survivors. Reporting on research conducted during 2020 with Black and minoritised organisations about the challenges encountered during the pandemic highlights how they rapidly adapted and reshaped survivor-centred support provision, the ways in which survivors experienced and responded to expanded forms of abuse, and the responses they and women received from mainstream service providers and the greater intersectional advocacy this required. © Centre for Gender and Violence Research-6808.

11.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(4):462-465, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954416
12.
Studies in Big Data ; 109:25-45, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1941430

ABSTRACT

COVID19 is a respiratory illness that is extremely infectious and is spreading at an alarming rate at the moment. Chest radiography images play an important part in the automated diagnosis of COVID19, which is accomplished via the use of several machine learning approaches. This chapter examines prognostic models for COVID-19 patients’ survival prediction based on clinical data and lung/lesion radiometric characteristics retrieved from chest imaging. While it seems that there are various early indicators of prognosis, we will discuss prognostic models or scoring systems that are useful exclusively to individuals who have received confirmation of their cancer diagnosis. A summary of some of the research work and strategies based on machine learning and computer vision that have been applied for the identification of COVID19 have been presented in this chapter. Some strategies based on pre-processing, segmentation, handmade features, deep features, and classification have been discussed, as well as some other techniques. Apart from that, a few relevant datasets have been provided, along with a few research gaps and challenges in the respective sector that have been identified, all of which will be useful for future study efforts. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2589-2596, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934373

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence, extent, clinical approach of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients recovered from COVID-19.

14.
International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Sustainable Computing, ICISSC 2021 ; 289:69-78, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 formally termed as “2019 novel coronavirus,” is disrupting socioeconomic conditions throughout the world. Due to the unavailability of efficient ways to predict the severity level of COVID-19, governmental officials and policymakers of different countries are facing difficulties to take precautionary measures for minimizing risks. This paper presents a model trained to predict COVID-19 situation severity level using XGBoost which is a gradient boosting algorithm. To categorize severity level, SIR epidemiological method has been employed which can express the current condition of any area affected by contagious diseases like COVID-19, analyzing the number of susceptible people stands for S, the number of infected people stands for I, and the number of recovered people stands for R. By comparing the evaluation metrics of the selected machine learning model with other machine learning algorithms, it is deduced that the model performs better for less training time(speed), gives an accuracy rate of 95%, and has the ability to reduce over-fitting. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
Journal of Scientometric Research ; 11(1):47-54, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897066

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the dynamics of the published articles and preprints of Covid-19 related literature from different scientific databases and sharing platforms. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate (RG) databases were under consideration in this study over a specific time. Analyses were carried out on the number of publications as (a) function of time (day), (b) journals and (c) authors. Doubling time of the number of publications was analyzed for PubMed "all articles" and ScienceDirect published articles. Analyzed databases were (1A) PubMed (01/12/2019-12/06/2020) "all_articles" (16) PubMed Review articles) and (1C) PubMed Clinical Trials (2) ScienceDirect all publications (01/12/2019- 25/05/2020) (3) RG (Article, Pre Print, Technical Report) (15/04/2020 - 30/4/2020). Total publications in the observation period for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG were 23000, 5898 and 5393 respectively. The average number of publications/day for PubMed, ScienceDirect and RG were 70.0 +/- 128.6, 77.6 +/- 125.3 and 255.6 +/- 205.8 respectively. PubMed shows an avalanche in the number of publications around May 10, the number of publications jumped from 6.0 +/- 8.4/day to 282.5 +/- 110.3/ day. The average doubling time for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 10.3 +/- 4 days, 20.6 days, and 2.3 +/- 2.0 days respectively. The average number of publications per author for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 1.2 +/- 1.4, 1.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.1 +/- 0.4 respectively. Subgroup analysis, PubMed review articles mean review <0 vertical bar 17 +/- 17 vertical bar 77> days: and reducing at a rate of -0.21 days (count)/day. The number of publications related to the COVID-19 until now is huge and growing very fast with time. It is essential to rationalize and limit the publications.

16.
Reference Series in Phytochemistry ; : 573-597, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1888827

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammation and oxidative damage have been proven as fundamental factors associated with many systemic diseases, leading to increased morbidity. To deal with this, formulation of new functional foods, dietary polyphenols, and supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents is required to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade. Several studies have shown a positive association between increased intake of dietary antioxidants and reduced risk for chronic inflammatory diseases and oxidative stress. This chapter concentrates on the underlying mechanisms of how different groups of dietary antioxidants, like vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and plant polyphenols, prevent the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress responses. Oxidative stress and inflammation mechanisms are discussed in the light of critical balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Also, roles of dietary antioxidants were discussed as an adjunctive treatment strategy to COVID-19 patients. Given the convincing evidence for protective as well as curative role of dietary antioxidants in inflammatory processes, more detailed understanding on the effects of nutrients on multiple aspects and development of novel anti-inflammatory agents is required to optimize approaches. To improve the bioavailability and targeted delivery of external antioxidants, nonreactive carriers or vehicles are needed to be designed with more precision and accuracy. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):179, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880576

ABSTRACT

Background: Enpatoran, a selective and potent toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) inhibitor, is in development for treating autoimmune diseases. Enpatoran may prevent hyperinflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19 by targeting pro-inflammatory pathways induced by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: The ANEMONE study, a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in the US, the Philippines, and Brazil, assessed the safety and efficacy of enpatoran in COVID-19 pneumonia (NCT04448756). Eligible hospitalized patients were aged 18-75 years, with a WHO 9-point scale score of 4, confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, SpO2 <94%, PaO2/FiO2 ≥150 (FiO2 max 0.4) and not on mechanical ventilation. Key exclusion criteria were active/unstable cardiovascular disease, history of uncontrolled illness and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Randomized patients (N=149) received placebo (PBO;n=49), enpatoran 50 mg twice daily (BID;n=54) or 100 mg BID (n=46) for 14 days, with monitoring up to Day 28 and safety follow-up to Day 60. Primary outcomes were safety and time to recovery (WHO 9-point scale ≤3). Clinical deterioration (time to clinical status >4, WHO 9-point scale) was a secondary outcome. Results: 88% of patients completed treatment (66% male, median age 50 years);50% had ≥1 comorbidity (including 40% hypertension, 24% diabetes). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 59% of patients;11% reported treatment-related TEAEs (Table). Serious TEAEs were higher with PBO (18%) than enpatoran (6%). Three non-treatment-related deaths occurred. Gastrointestinal disorders were most common (PBO 8%;50 mg BID 28%;100 mg BID 9%). Infections and infestations were reported by 18% (PBO), 17% (50 mg BID) and 4% (100 mg BID);COVID-19 worsening (PBO 8%;50 mg BID 9%) and bacterial sepsis (PBO 4%) were most common. Headache and dizziness were only reported with enpatoran (<3% across groups). Psychiatric disorders were higher with PBO (14%) than enpatoran (50 mg BID 7%;100 mg BID 4%). There was no dose effect on TEAEs. Median [95% CI] time to recovery from Day 1 through Day 28 was 3.4 [2.7, 4.9] (PBO), 3.7 [2.6, 4.0] (50 mg BID) and 3.9 [2.0, 4.8] (100 mg BID) days. A positive signal in time to clinical deterioration from Day 1 through Day 28 was observed;hazard ratios [95% CI] for enpatoran versus PBO were 0.39 [0.13, 1.15] (50 mg BID) and 0.30 [0.08, 1.08] (100 mg BID). Conclusion: Enpatoran was considered safe and well tolerated in hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia.

18.
Ecology ; : e3775, 2022 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877584

ABSTRACT

Managing wildlife populations in the face of global change requires regular data on the abundance and distribution of wild animals, but acquiring these over appropriate spatial scales in a sustainable way has proven challenging. Here we present the data from Snapshot USA 2020, a second annual national mammal survey of the USA. This project involved 152 scientists setting camera traps in a standardized protocol at 1485 locations across 103 arrays in 43 states for a total of 52,710 trap-nights of survey effort. Most (58) of these arrays were also sampled during the same months (September and October) in 2019, providing a direct comparison of animal populations in 2 years that includes data from both during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. All data were managed by the eMammal system, with all species identifications checked by at least two reviewers. In total, we recorded 117,415 detections of 78 species of wild mammals, 9236 detections of at least 43 species of birds, 15,851 detections of six domestic animals and 23,825 detections of humans or their vehicles. Spatial differences across arrays explained more variation in the relative abundance than temporal variation across years for all 38 species modeled, although there are examples of significant site-level differences among years for many species. Temporal results show how species allocate their time and can be used to study species interactions, including between humans and wildlife. These data provide a snapshot of the mammal community of the USA for 2020 and will be useful for exploring the drivers of spatial and temporal changes in relative abundance and distribution, and the impacts of species interactions on daily activity patterns. There are no copyright restrictions, and please cite this paper when using these data, or a subset of these data, for publication.

19.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer ; 57(9):16-19, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1871651
20.
60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) ; : 4988-4993, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868535

ABSTRACT

Using three case studies, we examine whether snapshot data from network opinion-evolution and spread processes are compressible in the Laplacian-eigenvector basis, in the sense that each snapshot can be approximated well using a (possibly different) small set of basis vectors. The first case study is concerned with a linear consensus model that is subject to a stochastic input at an unknown location;both empirical and formal analyses are used to characterize compressibility. Second, compressibility of state snapshots for a stochastic voter model is assessed via an empirical study. Finally, compressibility is studied for state-level daily COVID-19 positivity-rate data. The three case studies indicate that state snapshots from opinion-evolution and spread processes allow terse representations, which nevertheless capture their rich propagative dynamics.

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