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1.
Tomography ; 8(3):1221-1227, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1810207

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of traditional chest X-ray (CXR) and digital tomosynthesis (DTS) compared to computed tomography (CT) in detecting pulmonary interstitial changes in patients having recovered from severe COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study, and received local ethics committee approval. Patients suspected of having COVID-19 pneumonia upon emergency department admission between 1 March and 31 August 2020, and who underwent CXR followed by DTS and CT, were considered. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection proven by a positive RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs performed upon admission to the hospital, and with complete clinical recovery;(2) a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS, according to the Berlin criteria, during hospitalization;(3) no recent history of other lung disease;and (4) complete imaging follow-up by CXR, DTS, and CT for at least 6 months and up to one year. Analysis of DTS images was carried out independently by two radiologists with 16 and 10 years of experience in chest imaging, respectively. The following findings were evaluated: (1) ground-glass opacities (GGOs);(2) air-space consolidations with or without air bronchogram;(3) reticulations;and (4) linear consolidation. Indicators of diagnostic performance of RX and digital tomosynthesis were calculated using CT as a reference. All data were analyzed using R statistical software (version 4.0.2, 2020). Results: Out of 44 patients initially included, 25 patients (17 M/8 F), with a mean age of 64 years (standard deviation (SD): 12), met the criteria and were included. The overall average numbers of findings confirmed by CT were GGOs in 11 patients, lung consolidations in 8 patients, 7 lung interstitial reticulations, and linear consolidation in 20 patients. DTS showed a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared to CXR in recognizing interstitial lung abnormalities-especially GGOs (p = 0.0412) and linear consolidations (p = 0.0009). The average dose for chest X-ray was 0.10 mSv (0.07–0.32), for DTS was 1.03 mSv (0.74–2.00), and for CT scan was 3 mSv. Conclusions: According to our results, DTS possesses a high diagnostic accuracy, compared with CXR, in revealing lung fibrotic changes in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760681

ABSTRACT

The latest guidelines for the hospital care of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory failure have moved towards the widely accepted use of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) as opposed to early intubation at the pandemic onset. The establishment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia goes through different pathophysiological phases that partially resemble typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and have been categorized into different clinical-radiological phenotypes. These can variably benefit on the application of external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during noninvasive mechanical ventilation, mainly due to variable levels of lung recruitment ability and lung compliance during different phases of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that intense respiratory effort producing excessive negative pleural pressure swings (Ppl) plays a critical role in the onset and progression of lung and diaphragm damage in patients treated with noninvasive respiratory support. Routine respiratory monitoring is mandatory to avoid the nasty continuation of NIRS in patients who are at higher risk for respiratory deterioration and could benefit from early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation instead. Here we propose different monitoring methods both in the clinical and experimental settings adapted for this purpose, although further research is required to allow their extensive application in clinical practice. We reviewed the needs and available tools for clinical-physiological monitoring that aims at optimizing the ventilatory management of patients affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1607-1612, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614663

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this observational study was to highlight high resolution CT scan characteristics of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) with a focus on the detection of de-novo appeared or evolved bronchiectasis. METHODS: From March 2020 to May 2021, we enrolled 350 consecutive mechanically ventilated ICU patients with COVID-19. Patients with CAPA and at least one chest CT scan performed within 15 days from the diagnosis were included. Two radiologists were asked to identify typical and atypical signs of COVID-19 pneumonia. Bronchiectasis locations were described and a modified Reiff score was calculated, as severity score. A total of 19 CAPA patients (median age 71.0, Interquartile range (IQR) 62.5-75.0; male 16, 84.2%) were included. RESULTS: According to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM criteria, 18 patients had probable CAPA and one had proven CAPA. The median time between hospital admission and CT scan was 21 days (IQR 14.5-25.0). The incidence of bronchiectasis in the study population was 57.9% (n = 11). Tubular bronchiectasis was detected in 10 patients and were scored as follows: three patients had a score of 1, three patients had a score of score 2, one patient had a score of 5 and four patients had a score of 6. Eight patients had a previous CT scan (performed at hospital admission), among them: 5 patients developed de-novo bronchiectasis, while 2 patients demonstrated a volumetric increase of bronchiectasis. At the 6-months follow-up, the mortality rate for patients with CAPA was >60%. CONCLUSION: the radiologic detection of de-novo appearance or volumetric increase of bronchiectasis in COVID-19 should lead clinicians to search for fungal superinfections.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526592

ABSTRACT

Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of ARDS but is more common during #COVID19. The fibrous hyaline degeneration of the tracheal rings seen in this autoptic series is an original observation that has not been previously described in COVID-19 patients. https://bit.ly/3vxTQde.

6.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2284-2296, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451948

ABSTRACT

Current literature addressing the pharmacological principles guiding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in ARDS is scant. This paucity of information may have led to the heterogeneity of treatment protocols and misinterpretation of available findings. GCs are agonist compounds that bind to the GC receptor (GR) producing a pharmacological response. Clinical efficacy depends on the magnitude and duration of exposure to GR. We updated the meta-analysis of randomized trials investigating GC treatment in ARDS, focusing on treatment protocols and response. We synthesized the current literature on the role of the GR in GC therapy including genomic and non-genomic effects, and integrated current clinical pharmacology knowledge of various GCs, including hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone. This review addresses the role dosage, timing of initiation, mode of administration, duration, and tapering play in achieving optimal response to GC therapy in ARDS. Based on RCTs' findings, GC plasma concentration-time profiles, and pharmacodynamic studies, optimal results are most likely achievable with early intervention, an initial bolus dose to achieve close to maximal GRα saturation, followed by a continuous infusion to maintain high levels of response throughout the treatment period. In addition, patients receiving similar GC doses may experience substantial between-patient variability in plasma concentrations affecting clinical response. GC should be dose-adjusted and administered for a duration targeting clinical and laboratory improvement, followed by dose-tapering to achieve gradual recovery of the suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings have practical clinical relevance. Future RCTs should consider these pharmacological principles in the study design and interpretation of findings.


Subject(s)
Glucocorticoids , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Methylprednisolone , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
7.
Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine (Second Edition) ; : 10-17, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1415139

ABSTRACT

The alveolar epithelium is a thin continuous liquid lining layer primarily composed of two types of epithelial cells, i.e., alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. ATI cells have a broad flattened morphology and cover about 95% of the gas exchange surface of the lung. Whilst, ATIIs are small cuboidal cells with characteristic lamellar inclusions and apical microvilli that line the remainder of the alveolus (about 5%). ATII cells make and secrete a pulmonary surfactant, which reduces the surface tension in the alveoli preventing alveolar collapse during respiration and reducing the energy required to inflate the lungs, thereby increasing pulmonary compliance. These cells also transport ions from the apical to the basolateral surface so as to keep the alveoli relatively fluid free and have roles in the innate immune response. Importantly, they are the progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium in the adult lung. Having a very thin cytoplasm, a limited number of mitochondria and covering a higher surface area, ATI cells are easily damaged during lung injury, after which they are replaced by ATII cells through the alveolar epithelium regeneration process. Despite ATII cells are considered an essential part of this process, numerous interstitial lung diseases are characterized by hyperplastic ATIIs: in fact, they may also contribute to the fibroproliferative reaction by secreting a number of growth factors and proinflammatory molecules.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate High-Resolution CT (HRCT) findings in SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS survivors treated with prolonged low-dose methylprednisolone after hospital discharge. METHODS: A total of 44 consecutive patients (M: 32, F: 12, average age: 64), hospitalised in our department from April to September 2020 for SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS, who had a postdischarge CT scan, were enrolled into this retrospective study. We reviewed the electronic medical charts to collect laboratory, clinical, and demographic data. The CT findings were evaluated and classified according to lung segmental distribution. The imaging findings were correlated with spirometry results and included ground glass opacities (GGOs), consolidations, reticulations, bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis, linear bands, and loss of pulmonary volume. RESULTS: Alterations in the pulmonary parenchyma were observed in 97.7% of patients at HRCT (median time lapse between ARDS diagnosis and HRCT: 2.8 months, range 0.9 to 6.7). The most common findings were linear bands (84%), followed by GGOs (75%), reticulations (34%), bronchiolectasis (32%), consolidations (30%), bronchiectasis (30%) and volume loss (25%). They had a symmetric distribution, and both lower lobes were the most affected areas. CONCLUSIONS: A reticular pattern with a posterior distribution was observed 3 months after discharge from severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and this differs from previously described postCOVID-19 fibrotic-like changes. We hypothesized that the systematic use of prolonged low-dose of corticosteroid could be the main reason of this different CT scan appearance.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389392

ABSTRACT

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are a key structure of the distal lung epithelium, where they exert their innate immune response and serve as progenitors of alveolar type I (ATI) cells, contributing to alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration. In the healthy lung, ATII cells coordinate the host defense mechanisms, not only generating a restrictive alveolar epithelial barrier, but also orchestrating host defense mechanisms and secreting surfactant proteins, which are important in lung protection against pathogen exposure. Moreover, surfactant proteins help to maintain homeostasis in the distal lung and reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface, thereby preventing atelectasis and reducing the work of breathing. ATII cells may also contribute to the fibroproliferative reaction by secreting growth factors and proinflammatory molecules after damage. Indeed, various acute and chronic diseases are associated with intensive inflammation. These include oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosis and numerous interstitial lung diseases, and are characterized by hyperplastic ATII cells which are considered an essential part of the epithelialization process and, consequently, wound healing. The aim of this review is that of revising the physiologic and pathologic role ATII cells play in pulmonary diseases, as, despite what has been learnt in the last few decades of research, the origin, phenotypic regulation and crosstalk of these cells still remain, in part, a mystery.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/physiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ions/metabolism , Lung/anatomy & histology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Regeneration
10.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

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