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Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987915


BACKGROUND: In the currently ongoing coronavirus pandemic, coinfections with unrelated life-threatening febrile conditions may pose a particular challenge to clinicians. Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis that may present general symptoms, including fever, malaise, and arthralgia, rendering it indistinguishable from COVID-19. METHODS: In this paper, we aim to draw attention to this issue and analyze the clinical characteristics of the coinfection SARS-CoV-2/Leishmania through a systematic review of the literature. We were motivated by the observation of the first case of visceral leishmaniasis and COVID-19 in a paediatric patient. CONCLUSION: Our case is a reminder for healthcare providers to consider the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients presenting with febrile syndrome in endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 130, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962870


BACKGROUND: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic represents an unprecedented global health challenge. Many COVID-19 symptoms are similar to symptoms that can occur in other infections. Malaria should always be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection returning from endemic areas. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the first case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and Plasmodium vivax-falciparum and SARS-CoV2 coinfection in children. Despite clearance of parassitaemia and a negative COVID-19 nasopharyngeal PCR, the patient's clinical conditions worsened. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to make the diagnosis of MIS-C. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins and methylprednisolone was effective. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of considering malaria diagnosis in patients returning from endemic areas, even in the COVID 19 era. Malaria and SARS-CoV2 co-infection may increase the risk of MIS-C, for which early detection is critical for proper management.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Malaria , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coinfection/diagnosis , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 4(3): dlac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961072


Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who developed secondary infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: Retrospective observational study including COVID-19 patients admitted to 12 Italian hospitals from March to December 2020 who developed a superinfection by CRE. Superinfection was defined as the occurrence of documented bacterial infection >48 h from admission. Patients with polymicrobial infections were excluded. Demographic, clinical characteristics and outcome were collected. Isolates were classified as KPC, metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) and OXA-48-producing CRE. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with 30 day mortality. Results: Overall, 123 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 59-75) were included. The majority of infections occurred in the ICU (81, 65.9%), while 42 (34.1%) in medical wards. The most common types of infection were bloodstream infections (BSI) (n = 64, 52%), followed by urinary-tract infections (UTI) (n = 28, 22.8%), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) (n = 28, 22.8%), intra-abdominal infections (n = 2, 1.6%) and skin infections (n = 1, 0.8%). Sixty-three (51.2%) infections were caused by KPC-, 54 (43.9%) by MBL-, and 6 (4.8%) by OXA-48-producing CRE. Thirty-day mortality was 33.3% (41/123). On Cox regression analysis, HAP/VAP compared with UTI (HR 7.23, 95% CI 2.09-24.97, P = 0.004), BSI compared with UTI (HR 3.96, 95% CI, 1.33-11.77, P = 0.004), lymphopenia on admission (HR 3, 95% CI 1.44-6.26, P = 0.003) and age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P = 0.002) were predictors of 30 day mortality. Conclusions: Superinfections by CRE were associated with high risk of 30 day mortality in patients with COVID-19. HAP/VAP was the strongest predictor of death in these patients.