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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477891

ABSTRACT

Despite the massive distribution of different vaccines globally, the current pandemic has revealed the crucial need for an efficient treatment against COVID-19. Meta-analyses have historically been extremely useful to determine treatment efficacy but recent debates about the use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients resulted in contradictory meta-analytical results. Different factors during the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted key features of conducting a good meta-analysis. Some meta-analyses did not evaluate or treat substantial heterogeneity (I 2 > 75%); others did not include additional analysis for publication bias; none checked for evidence of p-hacking in the primary studies nor used recent methods (i.e., p-curve or p-uniform) to estimate the average population-size effect. These inconsistencies may contribute to contradictory results in the research evaluating COVID-19 treatments. A prominent example of this is the use of hydroxychloroquine, where some studies reported a large positive effect, whereas others indicated no significant effect or even increased mortality when hydroxychloroquine was used with the antibiotic azithromycin. In this paper, we first recall the benefits and fundamental steps of good quality meta-analysis. Then, we examine various meta-analyses on hydroxychloroquine treatments for COVID-19 patients that led to contradictory results and causes for this discrepancy. We then highlight recent tools that contribute to evaluate publication bias and p-hacking (i.e., p-curve, p-uniform) and conclude by making technical recommendations that meta-analyses should follow even during extreme global events such as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Azithromycin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Chest ; 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401306

ABSTRACT

Considering the COVID-19 pandemic where concomitant occurrence of ARDS and severe acute brain injury (sABI) has increasingly coemerged, we synthesize existing data regarding the simultaneous management of both conditions. Our aim is to provide readers with fundamental principles and concepts for the management of sABI and ARDS, and highlight challenges and conflicts encountered while managing concurrent disease. Up to 40% of patients with sABI can develop ARDS. Although there are trials and guidelines to support the mainstays of treatment for ARDS and sABI independently, guidance on concomitant management is limited. Treatment strategies aimed at managing severe ARDS may at times conflict with the management of sABI. In this narrative review, we discuss the physiological basis and risks involved during simultaneous management of ARDS and sABI, summarize evidence for treatment decisions, and demonstrate these principles using hypothetical case scenarios. Use of invasive or noninvasive monitoring to assess brain and lung physiology may facilitate goal-directed treatment strategies with the potential to improve outcome. Understanding the pathophysiology and key treatment concepts for comanagement of these conditions is critical to optimizing care in this high-acuity patient population.

3.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(3): 9, 2021 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080528

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RECENT FINDINGS: Nerve pain and skeletal muscle injury, Guillain-Barré syndrome, cranial polyneuritis, neuromuscular junction disorders, neuro-ophthalmological disorders, neurosensory hearing loss, and dysautonomia have been reported as PNS manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has shown syndromic complexity. Not only does SARS-CoV-2 affect the central nervous system but also it involves the PNS. The PNS involvement may be due to dysregulation of the immune system attributable to COVID-19. Here we review the broad spectrum of PNS involvement of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , Central Nervous System , Humans , Peripheral Nervous System , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 20(12): 66, 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921776

ABSTRACT

The original version contained incorrect formatting of Dr. Napolis. His first name should be Mario and his last name should be Di Napoli.

5.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 20(12): 60, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health crisis of our time. The disease arises from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells for its internalization. COVID-19 has a wide range of respiratory symptoms from mild to severe and affects several other organs, increasing the complexity of the treatment. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can target the nervous system. In this review, we provide an account of the COVID-19 central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: A broad spectrum of the CNS manifestations including headache, impaired consciousness, delirium, loss of smell and taste, encephalitis, seizures, strokes, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurogenic respiratory failure, encephalopathy, silent hypoxemia, generalized myoclonus, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome has been reported in patients with COVID-19. CNS manifestations associated with COVID-19 should be considered in clinical practice. There is a need for modification of current protocols and standing orders to provide better care for COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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