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PLoS One ; 17(6): e0264298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021610


The association between COVID-19 symptoms and antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 is poorly characterized. We analyzed antibody levels in individuals with known SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antibody-symptom associations. Convalescent plasma from 216 SARS-CoV-2 RNA+ individuals with symptomatology information were tested for the presence of IgG to the spike S1 subunit (Euroimmun ELISA), IgG to receptor binding domain (RBD, CoronaCHEK rapid test), and for IgG, IgA, and IgM to nucleocapsid (N, Bio-Rad ELISA). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a COVID-19 symptom from the antibody response, adjusting for sex and age. Cough strongly associated with antibodies against S1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.33; 95% CI from 1.51 to 18.86) and RBD (aOR = 4.36; CI 1.49, 12.78). In contrast, sore throat significantly associated with the absence of antibodies to S1 and N (aOR = 0.25; CI 0.08, 0.80 and aOR = 0.31; 0.11, 0.91). Similarly, lack of symptoms associated with the absence of antibodies to N and RBD (aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 0.97 and aOR = 0.16; CI 0.03, 1.01). Cough appeared to be correlated with a seropositive result, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals exhibiting lower respiratory symptoms generate a robust antibody response. Conversely, those without symptoms or limited to a sore throat while infected with SARS-CoV-2 were likely to lack a detectable antibody response. These findings strongly support the notion that severity of infection correlates with robust antibody response.

COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/therapy , Cough , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1440-1444, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788574


BACKGROUND: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. METHODS: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700


Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.

COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines