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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307203

ABSTRACT

Background: Pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still lacking. We have identified IFNβ-1a as the most promising drug to be repurposed for COVID-19. The rationale relies on the evidence of IFNβ anti-viral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 and animal models resembling SARS-CoV-2 infection and on a recent clinical trial where IFNβ was indicated as the key component of a successful therapeutic combination. Methods: : This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, monocentric, phase II trial (INTERCOP trial). 126 patients with positive swab detection of SARS-CoV-2, radiological signs of pneumonia, and mild-to-moderate disease will be randomized 2:1 to IFNβ-1a in addition to standard of care vs standard of care alone. No other anti-viral drugs will be used as part of the regimens, both in the control and the intervention arms. IFNβ-1a will be administered subcutaneously at the dose of 44 mcg (equivalent to 12 million international units) three times per week, at least 48 hours apart, for a total of two weeks. The primary outcome is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs. Secondary outcomes include improvement or worsening in a clinical severity score measured on a 7-point ordinal scale (including transfer to intensive care unit and death), oxygen- and ventilator-free days, mortality, changes in pulmonary computed tomography severity score, hospital stay duration, reduction of viral load measured on nasopharyngeal swabs, number of serious adverse events, changes in biochemical markers of organ dysfunction. Exploratory outcomes include blood cell counts, cytokine and inflammatory profile, peripheral mRNA expression profiles of interferon-stimulated genes, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and to IFNβ-1a. INTERCOP is the first study to specifically investigate the clinical benefits of IFNβ-1a in COVID-19 patients. Discussion: Potential implications of this trial are multifaceted: should the primary outcome be fulfilled and the treatment be safe, one may envisage that IFNβ-1a be used to reduce the infectivity of patients with mild-to moderate disease. In case IFNβ-1a reduced the duration of hospital stay and/or ameliorated the clinical status, it may become a cornerstone of COVID-19 treatment. Trial registration: EudraCT 2020-002458-25. Registered on May 11, 2020ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449380

4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pericardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. METHODS: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation. RESULTS: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(4): e253-e261, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 develop a life-threatening hyperinflammatory response to the virus. Interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors have been used to treat this patient population, but the comparative effectiveness of these different strategies remains undetermined. We aimed to compare IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. METHODS: This cohort study included patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, defined as a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and hyperinflammation, defined as serum C-reactive protein concentration of 100 mg/L or more or ferritin concentration of 900 ng/mL or more. The primary endpoint was survival, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation (adverse clinical outcome). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving IL-1 inhibition (anakinra) or IL-6 inhibition (tocilizumab or sarilumab) with those of patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, after accounting for baseline differences. All patients received standard care. Interaction tests were used to assess the probability of survival according to C-reactive protein or lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FINDINGS: Of 392 patients included between Feb 25 and May 20, 2020, 275 did not receive interleukin inhibitors, 62 received the IL-1 inhibitor anakinra, and 55 received an IL-6 inhibitor (29 received tocilizumab and 26 received sarilumab). In the multivariable analysis, compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, patients treated with IL-1 inhibition had a significantly reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0·450, 95% CI 0·204-0·990, p=0·047), but those treated with IL-6 inhibition did not (0·900, 0·412-1·966; p=0·79). In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in adverse clinical outcome risk in patients treated with IL-1 inhibition (HR 0·866, 95% CI 0·482-1·553; p=0·63) or IL-6 inhibition (0·882, 0·452-1·722; p=0·71) relative to patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For increasing C-reactive protein concentrations, patients treated with IL-6 inhibition had a significantly reduced risk of mortality (HR 0·990, 95% CI 0·981-0·999; p=0·031) and adverse clinical outcome (0·987, 0·979-0·995; p=0·0021) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For decreasing concentrations of serum lactate dehydrogenase, patients treated with an IL-1 inhibitor and patients treated with IL-6 inhibitors had a reduced risk of mortality; increasing concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in patients receiving either interleukin inhibitor were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·003-1·014, p=0·0011 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·006, 1·001-1·011, p=0·028 for IL-6 inhibitors) and adverse clinical outcome (1·006, 1·002-1·010, p=0·0031 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·005, 1·001-1·010, p=0·016 for IL-6 inhibitors) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: IL-1 inhibition, but not IL-6 inhibition, was associated with a significant reduction of mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. IL-6 inhibition was effective in a subgroup of patients with markedly high C-reactive protein concentrations, whereas both IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition were effective in patients with low lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. FUNDING: None.

7.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 3: 100059, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192398
8.
Saudi J Med Med Sci ; 9(1): 59-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the first wave of the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infections, Italy experienced a heavy burden of hospital admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Early evidence suggested that females are less affected than males. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the gender-related differences in presentation and severity among COVID-19 patients admitted to IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included all patients admitted to the hospital between February 25 and April 19, 2020, with a positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. The following data were collected: date of admission, gender, age and details of intensive care unit admission and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 901 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital and provided consent for the study. Of these, 284 were female (31.5%). The percentage of admitted female patients significantly increased over time (25.9% of all admissions in the first half of the study period vs. 37.1% in the second half; P < 0.001). Females accounted for 14.4% of all COVID-19 intensive care unit admissions. There was no gender-based difference in the overall hospital mortality: 20.1% for females and 19.2% for males (P = 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospital, which was in the epicenter of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, female patients were few, presented late and were less critical than male patients.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3631-3641, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, dramatic endothelial cell damage with pulmonary microvascular thrombosis have been was hypothesized to occur. The aim was to assess whether pulmonary vascular thrombosis (PVT) is due to recurrent thromboembolism from peripheral deep vein thrombosis or to local inflammatory endothelial damage, with a superimposed thrombotic late complication. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Medical and intensive care unit wards of a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The authors report a subset of patients included in a prospective institutional study (CovidBiob study) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary vascular thromboembolism. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and evaluation of laboratory markers and coagulation profile. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 55 (50.9%) patients showed PVT, with a median time interval from symptom onset of 17.5 days. Simultaneous multiple PVTs were identified in 22 patients, with bilateral involvement in 16, mostly affecting segmental/subsegmental pulmonary artery branches (67.8% and 96.4%). Patients with PVT had significantly higher ground glass opacity areas (31.7% [22.9-41] v 17.8% [10.8-22.1], p < 0.001) compared with those without PVT. Remarkably, in all 28 patients, ground glass opacities areas and PVT had an almost perfect spatial overlap. D-dimer level at hospital admission was predictive of PVT. CONCLUSIONS: The findings identified a specific radiologic pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with a unique spatial distribution of PVT overlapping areas of ground-glass opacities. These findings supported the hypothesis of a pathogenetic relationship between COVID-19 lung inflammation and PVT and challenged the previous definition of pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 939, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still lacking. We have identified IFNß-1a as the most promising drug to be repurposed for COVID-19. The rationale relies on the evidence of IFNß anti-viral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 and animal models resembling SARS-CoV-2 infection and on a recent clinical trial where IFNß was indicated as the key component of a successful therapeutic combination. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, monocentric, phase II trial (INTERCOP trial). One hundred twenty-six patients with positive swab detection of SARS-CoV-2, radiological signs of pneumonia, and mild-to-moderate disease will be randomized 2:1 to IFNß-1a in addition to standard of care vs standard of care alone. No other anti-viral drugs will be used as part of the regimens, both in the control and the intervention arms. IFNß-1a will be administered subcutaneously at the dose of 44 mcg (equivalent to 12 million international units) three times per week, at least 48 h apart, for a total of 2 weeks. The primary outcome is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs. Secondary outcomes include improvement or worsening in a clinical severity score measured on a 7-point ordinal scale (including transfer to intensive care unit and death), oxygen- and ventilator-free days, mortality, changes in pulmonary computed tomography severity score, hospital stay duration, reduction of viral load measured on nasopharyngeal swabs, number of serious adverse events, and changes in biochemical markers of organ dysfunction. Exploratory outcomes include blood cell counts, cytokine and inflammatory profile, peripheral mRNA expression profiles of interferon-stimulated genes, and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and to IFNß-1a. INTERCOP is the first study to specifically investigate the clinical benefits of IFNß-1a in COVID-19 patients. DISCUSSION: Potential implications of this trial are multifaceted: should the primary outcome be fulfilled and the treatment be safe, one may envisage that IFNß-1a be used to reduce the infectivity of patients with mild-to moderate disease. In case IFNß-1a reduced the duration of hospital stay and/or ameliorated the clinical status, it may become a cornerstone of COVID-19 treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2020-002458-25. Registered on May 11, 2020 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449380.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Data Management , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interferon beta-1a/administration & dosage , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality/trends , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects
11.
Panminerva Med ; 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biobanks are imperative infrastructures, particularly during outbreaks, when there is an obligation to acquire and share knowledge as quick as possible to allow for implementation of science-based preventive, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We established a COVID-19 biobank with the aim of collecting high-quality and well-annotated human biospecimens, in the effort to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 and identify therapeutic targets (COVID-BioB, NCT04318366). Here we describe our experience and briefly review the characteristics of the biobanks for COVID-19 that have been so far established. RESULTS: A total of 46,677 samples have been collected from 913 participants (63.3% males, median [IQR] age 62.2 [51.2 - 74.0] years) since the beginning of the program. Most patients (66.9%) had been admitted to hospital for COVID-19, with a median length of stay of 15.0 (9.0 - 27.0) days. A minority of patients (13.3% of the total) had been admitted for other reasons and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remainder were managed at home after being seen at the Emergency Department. CONCLUSIONS: Having a solid research infrastructure already in place, along with flexibility and adaptability to new requirements, allowed for the quick building of a COVID-19 biobank that will help expand and share the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108598, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778645

ABSTRACT

Growing clinical evidence has implicated complement as a pivotal driver of COVID-19 immunopathology. Deregulated complement activation may fuel cytokine-driven hyper-inflammation, thrombotic microangiopathy and NET-driven immunothrombosis, thereby leading to multi-organ failure. Complement therapeutics have gained traction as candidate drugs for countering the detrimental consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether blockade of terminal complement effectors (C5, C5a, or C5aR1) may elicit similar outcomes to upstream intervention at the level of C3 remains debated. Here we compare the efficacy of the C5-targeting monoclonal antibody eculizumab with that of the compstatin-based C3-targeted drug candidate AMY-101 in small independent cohorts of severe COVID-19 patients. Our exploratory study indicates that therapeutic complement inhibition abrogates COVID-19 hyper-inflammation. Both C3 and C5 inhibitors elicit a robust anti-inflammatory response, reflected by a steep decline in C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, marked lung function improvement, and resolution of SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). C3 inhibition afforded broader therapeutic control in COVID-19 patients by attenuating both C3a and sC5b-9 generation and preventing FB consumption. This broader inhibitory profile was associated with a more robust decline of neutrophil counts, attenuated neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, faster serum LDH decline, and more prominent lymphocyte recovery. These early clinical results offer important insights into the differential mechanistic basis and underlying biology of C3 and C5 inhibition in COVID-19 and point to a broader pathogenic involvement of C3-mediated pathways in thromboinflammation. They also support the evaluation of these complement-targeting agents as COVID-19 therapeutics in large prospective trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Complement C3/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement C5/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement C3/genetics , Complement C3/immunology , Complement C5/genetics , Complement C5/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Heart ; 106(17): 1324-1331, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, characteristics and prognostic value of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in hospitalised, non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This single-centre, observational, cross-sectional study included 211 patients with COVID-19 admitted to non-ICU departments who underwent a single transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Patients with poor acoustic window (n=11) were excluded. Clinical, imaging, laboratory and TTE findings were compared in patients with versus without PH (estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure >35 mm Hg) and with versus without RVD (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <17 mm or S wave <9.5 cm/s). The primary endpoint was in-hospital death or ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included in the final analysis (median age 62 (IQR 52-74) years, 65.5% men). The prevalence of PH and RVD was 12.0% (24/200) and 14.5% (29/200), respectively. Patients with PH were older and had a higher burden of pre-existing cardiac comorbidities and signs of more severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (radiological lung involvement, laboratory findings and oxygenation status) compared with those without PH. Conversely, patients with RVD had a higher burden of pre-existing cardiac comorbidities but no evidence of more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those without RVD. The presence of PH was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital death or ICU admission (41.7 vs 8.5%, p<0.001), while the presence of RVD was not (17.2 vs 11.7%, p=0.404). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised non-ICU patients with COVID-19, PH (and not RVD) was associated with signs of more severe COVID-19 and with worse in-hospital clinical outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1277-1285, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of interleukin (IL)-6 blockade with sarilumab in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: We conducted an open-label study of sarilumab in severe COVID-19 pneumonia (PaO2/FiO2 <300 mm Hg) with hyperinflammation (elevated inflammatory markers and serum IL-6 levels). Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously in addition to standard of care and results were compared with contemporary matched patients treated with standard of care alone. Clinical improvement, mortality, safety and predictors of response were assessed at 28 days. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were treated with sarilumab and 28 contemporary patients receiving standard of care alone were used as controls. At day 28 of follow-up, 61% of patients treated with sarilumab experienced clinical improvement and 7% died. These findings were not significantly different from the comparison group (clinical improvement 64%, mortality 18%; p=NS). Baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio >100 mm Hg and lung consolidation <17% at CT scan predicted clinical improvement in patients treated with sarilumab. Median time to clinical improvement in patients with lung consolidation <17% was shorter after sarilumab (10 days) than after standard treatment (24 days; p=0.01). The rate of infection and pulmonary thrombosis was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: At day 28, overall clinical improvement and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 were not significantly different between sarilumab and standard of care. Sarilumab was associated with faster recovery in a subset of patients showing minor lung consolidation at baseline.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Drug Combinations , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
18.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(8): e465-e473, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation is high. We aimed to examine whether mavrilimumab, an anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-α monoclonal antibody, added to standard management, improves clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: This single-centre prospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older who were admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxia, and systemic hyperinflammation. Patients received a single intravenous dose (6 mg/kg) of mavrilimumab added to standard care given by the hospital at the time. The control group consisted of contemporaneous patients with similar baseline characteristics who received standard care at the same hospital. The main outcome was time to clinical improvement (defined as improvement of two or more points on the seven-point ordinal scale of clinical status). Other outcomes included proportion of patients achieving clinical improvement, survival, mechanical ventilation-free survival, and time to fever resolution. Adverse events were monitored daily. FINDINGS: Between March 17 and April 15, 2020, 13 non-mechanically ventilated patients (median age 57 years [IQR 52-58], 12 [92%] men) received mavrilimumab and 26 patients (median age 60 [IQR 53-67], 17 [65%] men) in the control group received standard care. During the 28-day follow-up, no patients in the mavrilimumab group died, and seven (27%) patients in the control group died (p=0·086). At day 28, all patients in the mavrilimumab group and 17 (65%) patients in the control group showed clinical improvement (p=0·030), with earlier improvement in the mavrilimumab than in the control group (mean time to improvement 8 days [IQR 5 to 11] vs 19 days [11 to >28], p=0·0001). By day 28, one (8%) patient in the mavrilimumab group progressed to mechanical ventilation compared with nine (35%) patients in the control group who progressed to mechanical ventilation or died (p=0·14). By day 14, fever resolved in ten (91%) of 11 febrile patients in the mavrilimumab group, compared with 11 (61%) of 18 febrile patients in the control group (p=0·18); fever resolution was faster in mavrilimumab recipients versus controls (median time to resolution 1 day [IQR 1 to 2] vs 7 days [3 to >14], p=0·0093). Mavrilimumab was well tolerated, with no infusion reactions. Three (12%) patients in the control group developed infectious complications. INTERPRETATION: Mavrilimumab treatment was associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with standard care in non-mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. Treatment was well tolerated. Confirmation of efficacy requires controlled testing. FUNDING: IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute.

20.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108509, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: National health-system hospitals of Lombardy faced a heavy burden of admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on patients of European origin affected by COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged ≥18 years, coming from North-East of Milan's province and admitted at San Raffaele Hospital with COVID-19, between February 25th and March 24th, were reported, all patients were followed for at least one month. Clinical and radiological features at admission and predictors of clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 500 patients admitted to the Emergency Unit, 410 patients were hospitalized and analyzed: median age was 65 (IQR 56-75) years, and the majority of patients were males (72.9%). Median (IQR) days from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 8 (5-11) days. At hospital admission, fever (≥ 37.5 °C) was present in 67.5% of patients. Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314). Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16). More than half of the patients (56.3%) had comorbidities, with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney failure being the most common. The probability of overall survival at day 28 was 66%. Multivariable analysis showed older age, coronary artery disease, cancer, low lymphocyte count and high RALE score as factors independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of COVID-19 patients of European origin, main risk factors for mortality were older age, comorbidities, low lymphocyte count and high RALE.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/immunology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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