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1.
Clinical & Experimental Dermatology ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019174
2.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology ; 22:22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001681
6.
Journal of Community Health ; 46(4):786-793, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409906

ABSTRACT

In Italy, as well as in almost all countries, the use of masks in public with several other measures has been an important health measure during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The correct use of masks is essential, as a wrong use and disposal may increase the rate of contagious. Herein, we report a descriptive study evaluating the knowledge and use, reuse and disposal of masks in community settings. An anonymous questionnaire called MaSK (Mask uSe and Knowledge) questionnaire was developed and offered to patients referring at our dermatologic outpatient clinic. A total of 2562 full complete patients' questionnaires were considered for the study. Our results showed that awareness and information campaigns aimed at the general population are urgently needed in order to implement a correct use of masks and limit as much as possible the infection rate.

7.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):888, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358769

ABSTRACT

Background: The new coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a source of concern for the management of patients suffering from rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) treated with immunomodulatory therapies (1). Objectives: We aimed to analyze the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with RMDs living in Italy. Methods: During the first wave (March-May 2020) and during the second wave (October-December 2020) of COVID-19, we conducted a survey to investigate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with RMDs followed at the Rheumatology Unit of the University of Campania, Italy. The demographic data, medication use, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and the incidence of COVID-19 confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab were collected with questionnaires administered by phone. The prevalence of COVID-19 of our cohort was compared to that of the general population (2). Results: During the first wave, we collected data from 900 patients with RMDs (Table 1): 320 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 295 patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA), 283 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 2 patients with vasculitis. 546 (60%) were treated with bDMARD/tsDMARDs. Overall, a total of 11/900 (1%) cases were tested for COVID-19 due to compatible symptoms. 2 (0.2%) adult patients treated with bDMARDs were registered as swab test positive by PCR for COVID-19. 2 patients without confirmed COVID-19 developed pneumonia that required admission to hospital. No deaths occurred among the patients with confirmed COVID-19. During the second wave, data were collected from 470 patients who accepted to take part of the study (Table 1). 49 presented with symptoms that were compatible with COVID-19. 139 patients were tested whereas 30 patients (6%) had a swab confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them, 16 (53%) were treated with bDMARDs and a patient was treated with tofacitinib. we found no increase in COVID-19 prevalence in patients treated with bDMARD/tsDMARDs (p≥0.05). A patient with SLE developed pneumonia that required admission to hospital and died. Lacking distinct prevalence data between first and second waves, we found no differences in total COVID-19 prevalence between general population living in Campania (215.752/5.802.000;3.7%) and patients with RMDs (32/900;3.5%). However, we had a significant increase in COVID-19 prevalence in our cohort during the second wave compared to the first. Nevertheless, no increase in mortality or hospitalization was recorded, confirming the safety of immunomodulatory therapies in patients with RMDs. Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with RMDs in a geographical region with a high prevalence of COVID-19, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection does not appear different from that observed in the general population.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):53-54, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250660

ABSTRACT

Background: Further knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) in children is needed in order to define possible immunization strategies and reconsider pandemic control measures. We analyzed anti-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab) and their neutralizing activity (PRNT), alongside antigen (Ag) specific cellular response, in relation to virus load in nasopharyngeal swabs. Methods: We analysed 42 CoV-2 patients at 7 days after symptoms onset. CoV-2 viral load (VL) was measured by RT-PCR and digital droplet PCR on longitudinal samples of nasopharyngeal swabs (NP). Virus infectivity (FFU) was tested by virus focus forming assay. CoV-2 antibodies were investigated by Diasorin (CoV-2 Ab) and neutralization assay (PRNT). CoV-2-specific CD4-CD40L+ T-cells and Spike specific B-cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma proteomic profiling was measured by 2 Olink panels. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) of the viral load from NP collected every 48 hours up to undetectable VL. Mann-Whitney was used to compare means in individuals with neutralizing activity (PRNT+) or not (PRNT-);linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between virus load and infectivity over time. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyse proteomic data. Results: Higher VL was found in seronegative patients expressed in terms of both CoV-2 Ab (p=0.003) and PRNT (p=0.0007). Similarly, lower FFU was associated with higher CoV-2 Ab (p=0.003;rho=-0.67) and PRNT (p=0.023;rho=-0.46). Further, the AUC of the viral load in NP showed an inverse correlation with CoV-2 Ab (p=0.031;rho=-0.54). Development of humoral response was associated with the presence of CoV-2 specific IgD-CD27+ B cells, with a higher frequency of CoV-2 specific B cells found in seropositive compared to seronegative (p=0.001). Besides, individuals developing neutralizing Ab had higher frequency CD4-CD40L+ T-cells compared to PRNT- (p=0.03). The plasma proteome confirmed the association between cellular and humoral CoV-2 immunity, with PRNT+ showing higher viral signal transduction molecules (SLAMF1, CD244, CLEC4G). Conclusion: This work provides a virological and immunological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infected children presenting a differential Abmediated neutralizing activity. It demonstrates that children with neutralizing antibodies present reduced viral load, faster virus clearance and lower in vitro infectivity. These data provide information that can drive vaccination endpoints and quarantine measures policies.

9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):239-240, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250055

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infected children often range from being paucysymptomatic to fully asymptomatic. The impact of this population on the epidemics due to their ability to transmit the virus and achieve protective immunity has been poorly defined. We explored CoV-2 infectivity potential and anti-CoV-2 cellular (CD8, NK and B) and humoral response in symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) CoV-2 infected children, screened for a family member resulted infected. Methods: CoV-2 viral load was measured by RT-PCR and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) on longitudinal samples of nasopharyngeal swabs in 9 AS and 33 SY (samples were paired according to symptoms'onset for SY and first family contact for AS). Virus infectivity was tested by Virus focus forming assay (FFA). CoV-2 antibodies were investigated by Diasorin (CoV-2 Ab) and Ab-mediated neutralization activity (PRNT) at diagnosis, (samples collected >5 days from symptoms onset in SY, or from first family contact in AS were excluded from this timepoint), and in the convalescent phase (CP) (10-14 days after infection). Cellular response was analyzed by flow cytometry: 1) Ag-specific B cells, by a S1+S2 CoV2-R-PE probe;2) Ag-specific CD8+T cells by ICAM+;3) natural-killer (NK) phenotype. Mann-Whitney was used for comparison;linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between virus load and infectivity. Results: AS showed lower viral load (p=0.004) and faster virus clearance (p=0.0002) compared to SY. Virus infectivity was associated with ddPCR (rho=0.66;p=0.002). ASY and SY showed similar levels of CoV-2 Ab and PRNT, at both diagnosis and at follow up. During the CP, the proportion of CoV-2 Ab negative was 33,3% for both groups and PRNT was negative in 16,6% and 15,7% of AS and SY respectively. Anti-CoV-2 cellular immunity was comparable between ASY and SY. Indeed Ag-specific B cells and CD8 T cells were detectable despite symptomatology and no major differences were found between the groups. Total NK frequency was similar between the groups, while a regulatory NK subset (CD56bright NK cells) was higher in AS compared to SY (p=0.01). Conclusion: These data show that AS have a lower infectivity potential compared to SY suggesting that mitigated restrictive measures or alternative screening may be considered for this population. In addition, these patients showed an intact ability to produce humoral and cellular CoV-2 specific responses hence contributing to achieve herd immunity as much as SY.

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