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Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; - (2):594, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-833091


Coronaviruses are the common pathogenic microorganisms that infect human and animals and cause health hazards. Cell immune responses are induced to fight against coronavirus infection in infected cells. In order to initiate transcription and translation and to assemble the next generation in infected cells, viruses respond to cellular immune response and participate in many cellular activities. When specific receptors such as death receptors are bound by viral proteins, cells initiate apoptotic processes. Some viral proteins play critical roles in promoting or inhibiting apoptosis in the apoptotic process. For example, S protein induces external apoptotic pathway by binding to death receptor in cell membrane, M and S proteins induce internal apoptotic pathway by causing endoplasmic reticulum stress and Ca2+ imbalance. On the other hand, E protein inhibits apoptosis in infected cells. This article reviews the mechanism of pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects of coronavirus on infected cells. By understanding the different roles of different viral proteins in extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, it is expected to provide ideas for artificial intervention in cell regulation for prevention and control of coronavirus infection.

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20021584


BackgroundSevere ill patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection progressed rapidly to acute respiratory failure. We aimed to select the most useful prognostic factor for severe illness incidence. MethodsThe study prospectively included 61 patients with 2019-nCoV infection treated at Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 13, 2020 to January 31, 2020. Prognostic factor of severe illness was selected by the LASSO COX regression analyses, to predict the severe illness probability of 2019-CoV pneumonia. The predictive accuracy was evaluated by concordance index, calibration curve, decision curve and clinical impact curve. ResultsThe neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was identified as the independent risk factor for severe illness in patients with 2019-nCoV infection. The NLR had a c-index of 0.807 (95% confidence interval, 0.676-0.38), the calibration curves fitted well, and the decision curve and clinical impact curve showed that the NLR had superior standardized net benefit. In addition, the incidence of severe illness was 9.1% in age [≥] 50 and NLR < 3.13 patients, and half of patients with age [≥] 50 and NLR [≥] 3.13 would develop severe illness. Based on the risk stratification of NLR with age, the study developed a 2019-nCoV pneumonia management process. ConclusionsThe NLR was the early identification of risk factors for 2019-nCoV severe illness. Patients with age [≥] 50 and NLR [≥] 3.13 facilitated severe illness, and they should rapidly access to intensive care unit if necessary.