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1.
Journal of Family Issues ; : 0192513X211064861, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1582828

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global pandemic has forced millions of people to stay confined at home, increasing symptoms of anxiety and stress levels. Women who are also mothers, for their part, not only face the demands of motherhood but must combine working life with family life locked down in their homes. Main objective was to develop an explanatory model of the psychological consequences of COVID-19 and parental and perceived stress in mothers. A total of 261 mothers were evaluated coinciding with the lockdown imposed by the Spanish Government. The model displayed adequate indices and it was found that symptoms of anxiety in mothers increased the levels of perceived stress. The model allows to understand the close relationships between the psychological consequences of lockdown and stress in mothers. Understanding these relationships will help to prepare and direct psychological interventions in this population in the case of a possible new surge.

2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111260, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452344

ABSTRACT

Polymeric nanoparticulate systems allow the encapsulation of bio-active substances, giving them protection against external agents and increasing the drug's bioavailability. The use of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers usually guarantees the harmless character of the formulation, and a controlled drug release is also assured. A relatively easy procedure to obtain polymeric formulations of bioactive agents is ionotropic gelation, which allows the synthesis of chitosan (CS) - sodium tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) loading encapsulated proteins. In this work, Bovine serum albumin (BSA) model protein and a recombinant porcine alpha interferon variant were used to obtain nanoparticulate formulations. The internalization of the encapsulated material by cells was studied using a BSA-fluorescein system; the fluorescent conjugate was observable inside the cells after 20 h of incubation. The therapeutic CS-alpha interferon formulation showed a maximum of protein released in vitro at around 90 h. This system was found to be safe in a cytotoxicity assay, while biological activity experiments in vitro showed antiviral protection of cells in the presence of encapsulated porcine alpha interferon. In vivo experiments in pigs revealed a significant and sustained antiviral response through overexpression of the antiviral markers OAS2 and PKR. This proves the preservation of porcine alpha interferon biological activity, and also that a lasting response was obtained. This procedure is an effective and safe method to formulate drugs in nanoparticulate systems, representing a significant contribution to the search for more effective drug delivery strategies.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Cattle , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Interferon-alpha , Particle Size , Polymers , Swine
3.
Midwifery ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1451557

ABSTRACT

<h4>Objective</h4> : The aim was to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) in European Spanish speaking pregnant women in Spain. <h4>Design</h4> : A cross section design using a non-random sample of 206 women completed the questionnaire during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from April to June 2020 in Spain. Psychological, sociodemographic and obstetric factors and the new PREPS were collected. <h4>Results</h4> : Bartlett's test of sphericity (χ2(105) = 580.36, p < .001), and KMO = .79 confirmed appropriateness for factor analysis of the PREPS. Confirmatory factor analyses based on the factor structure of the original USA English version of this instrument confirmed three factors - Preparedness Stress (7 items), Perinatal Infection Stress (5 items), and Positive Appraisal (3 items). The 15-item version of the PREPS demonstrates internal consistency and reliability are adequate (α > .77), and for F1 - Preparedness (α > .65), for F2 - Infection (α > 0.60) and for F3 - Positive appraisal (α > .55). The three factors exhibited good inter-item correlations, (F1 – Preparedness: .21;F2 – Infection: .23, and F3 – Positive Appraisal: .29). Convergent validity was examined through the Pearson's correlation coefficients of the PREPS with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PDQ). Correlation between PREPS total and PSS was high, and moderate with PDQ (p < .05). <h4>Conclusion</h4> : The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the PREPS make it a valuable psychological measure to assess pandemic-related stress among pregnant women.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1235-1242, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361292

ABSTRACT

Most publications on pediatric COVID-19 in Spain were performed at the beginning of the pandemic when some diagnostic tools were not widely available. This study aims to show the real spectrum of the infection based on wide detection of cases due to symptoms and contact tracing. A descriptive and analytical observational study was performed including pediatric cases (0 to 14 years) from the region of Aragón between May 12 and October 31, 2020. Diagnostics was by PCR detection of viral RNA, rapid antigen detection test, or positive IgG serology. There were 5933 positive children included. Of them, 49.03% were women. The mean age was 7.53 ± 4.28 years. The source of infection could not be determined in 17.8% of cases. As for the rest, was determined to be within the family environment in 67.8%. The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 50.3%. Among symptomatic patients, fever (58.1%) and cough (46.7%) were the most frequent symptoms. Hospitalization was required in 0.52% of infected, intensive care unit admission was on 0.05%, and there was one death (0.02%). Children under the age of one presented some symptoms more frequently (71.6% vs 48.5%; OR 2.68; 95% CI 2.08 to 3.45; p < 0.001) and required more hospitalizations (3.9% vs 0.34%; OR 11.52; 95% CI 5.65 to 23.52; p < 0.001).Conclusion: In our environment, SARS-CoV-2 infection is like other mild respiratory viral infections in the population under the age of 15. The contagion occurs mainly in the family environment, the number of asymptomatic is high, being the symptoms mild and the complications very infrequent. What is Known: • Pediatric infection produced by SARS-CoV-2 has manifested as a mild disease in relation to adult age, although with higher affectation at the youngest ages. • Nearly all studies on epidemiology and clinical spectrum of the disease were conducted with patients diagnosed at the beginning of the pandemic. By then, diagnostic tools were only available in hospitals and in emergency units. What is New: • Once diagnostic means were available in primary care medicine and were used not only for the diagnosis of clinical symptoms of the patient, but for the tracing of case contacts, a much more precise approach to the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the disease was allowed, as described in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough , Female , Fever , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(6): 2123-2127, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679977

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by COVID-19 has spread globally for the last few months. Healthcare workers (HCW) are overexposed and infection rates are higher than in the rest of the population. Strict clinical assessment is paramount to detect suspicious cases. In this context, olfactory or taste dysfunction (OTD) appears as an early and frequent symptom. Evaluating its presence in early stages plays an important role nowadays. METHODS: We performed a descriptive observational single-center study among 256 HCW at Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada affected by COVID-19 and confirmed using RT-PCR. A telephonic interview was performed, after obtaining oral informed consent. RESULTS: OTD was present in up to 70% of the cases as an early symptom, including mild-to-severe cases. The extent of these sensory deficits lasted an average of 11 days. In 26% of the patients, these sensory alterations persisted for over a month. CONCLUSION: OTD is reported as an early symptom among HCW with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Its strong association with test positivity is useful in the management of the infection and should be enough to indicate preventive isolation. We consider that OTD needs to be included in clinical screening questionnaires in HCW.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Health Personnel , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
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