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1.
J Contextual Behav Sci ; 26: 1-10, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983349

ABSTRACT

Telehealth strategies have become essential for responding to the sanitary emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, developing online psychological interventions (OPIs) that can treat and prevent psychological difficulties is gaining more relevance. This article describes an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) based OPI focused on repetitive negative thinking (RNT). This OPI is called Disentangled, Aware, and Committed (DAC) and represents an attempt to adapt previous RNT-focused ACT protocols to this format type. Study 1 evaluated content validity through the assessment of four experts in ACT regarding clarity, utility, pertinence, conceptual adjustment, and therapeutic goal fulfillment for each component of the DAC program. In Study 2, forty-one undergraduate clinical psychology trainees rated the components of the DAC program according to its clarity and perceived utility. These participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that analyzed the efficacy of the DAC to prevent the usually observed increase in emotional symptoms and RNT among this population. Expert reviewers in Study 1 rated all DAC components as clear and useful for potential users, following a logical order, theoretically coherent with the ACT model, and successfully fulfilling its stated goals. In Study 2, the participants also rated the DAC components as clear and potentially useful for their lives. In conclusion, the DAC appears to be a feasible transdiagnostic OPI for treating and preventing emotional symptoms, which warrants further studies analyzing its efficacy.

2.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103820, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906718

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has continued to impact global health. However, while immunity acquired by vaccines has been developed, 40% of the world's population has still not been vaccinated. Economic problems associated with acquiring novel therapies, misinformation, and differences in treatment protocols have generated catastrophic results, especially in low-resource countries. Understanding the pathophysiological aspects of coronavirus disease and the therapeutic strategies that have been validated to date is essential for successful medical care. In this review, I summarize the historical aspects of the virus, molecules involved in infecting the host, and consequences of viral interactions with and in tissues.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(41): 61729-61746, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877926

ABSTRACT

A descriptive analysis of 416 documents was performed using bibliometric techniques, in order to gather existing knowledge in circular economy focusing on waste management (2007-2020). The results of this study indicate that annual scientific production increased 94% in the last 5 years, highlighting the countries of Italy, Spain, the UK, China, Brazil, and India. Between the most cited documents stand out those related to calorific value of municipal solid waste and waste to energy technologies for achieving circular economy systems. The conceptual analysis indicates strong linkage between circular economy and sustainable production, waste management, and recycling. Emerging research trends evolved from processes and industry-oriented approach (2017) toward waste management, recycling, and circular economy (2019) and sustainable development and urban solid waste (2020). The analysis reveals five dominant circular economy and waste research themes: (1) greenhouse gases; (2) circular economy, waste management, and recycling; (3) life cycle; (4) waste treatment; and (5) anaerobic digestion and recovery; trends research are related to policy interventions, and enforcement of authorities' regulations to foster circular economy transition, increase the use of practices of recycling and reusing, as well as discourage a growing consumption culture. Results found denote the challenge represented by the implementation of comprehensive policies in circular economy. The above being a key alternative for green recovery in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Bibliometrics , Humans , Pandemics , Recycling , Solid Waste/analysis , Sustainable Development
5.
Elife ; 112022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847655

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants, breakthrough infections, waning immunity, and sub-optimal vaccination rates account for surges of hospitalizations and deaths. There is an urgent need for clinically valuable and generalizable triage tools assisting the allocation of hospital resources, particularly in resource-limited countries. We developed and validate CODOP, a machine learning-based tool for predicting the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. CODOP was trained, tested and validated with six cohorts encompassing 29223 COVID-19 patients from more than 150 hospitals in Spain, the USA and Latin America during 2020-22. CODOP uses 12 clinical parameters commonly measured at hospital admission for reaching high discriminative ability up to 9 days before clinical resolution (AUROC: 0·90-0·96), it is well calibrated, and it enables an effective dynamic risk stratification during hospitalization. Furthermore, CODOP maintains its predictive ability independently of the virus variant and the vaccination status. To reckon with the fluctuating pressure levels in hospitals during the pandemic, we offer two online CODOP calculators, suited for undertriage or overtriage scenarios, validated with a cohort of patients from 42 hospitals in three Latin American countries (78-100% sensitivity and 89-97% specificity). The performance of CODOP in heterogeneous and geographically disperse patient cohorts and the easiness of use strongly suggest its clinical utility, particularly in resource-limited countries.


While COVID-19 vaccines have saved millions of lives, new variants, waxing immunity, unequal rollout and relaxation of mitigation strategies mean that the pandemic will keep on sending shockwaves across healthcare systems. In this context, it is crucial to equip clinicians with tools to triage COVID-19 patients and forecast who will experience the worst forms of the disease. Prediction models based on artificial intelligence could help in this effort, but the task is not straightforward. Indeed, the pandemic is defined by ever-changing factors which artificial intelligence needs to cope with. To be useful in the clinic, a prediction model should make accurate prediction regardless of hospital location, viral variants or vaccination and immunity statuses. It should also be able to adapt its output to the level of resources available in a hospital at any given time. Finally, these tools need to seamlessly integrate into clinical workflows to not burden clinicians. In response, Klén et al. built CODOP, a freely available prediction algorithm that calculates the death risk of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (https://gomezvarelalab.em.mpg.de/codop/). This model was designed based on biochemical data from routine blood analyses of COVID-19 patients. Crucially, the dataset included 30,000 individuals from 150 hospitals in Spain, the United States, Honduras, Bolivia and Argentina, sampled between March 2020 and February 2022 and carrying most of the main COVID-19 variants (from the original Wuhan version to Omicron). CODOP can predict the death or survival of hospitalized patients with high accuracy up to nine days before the clinical outcome occurs. These forecasting abilities are preserved independently of vaccination status or viral variant. The next step is to tailor the model to the current pandemic situation, which features increasing numbers of infected people as well as accumulating immune protection in the overall population. Further development will refine CODOP so that the algorithm can detect who will need hospitalisation in the next 24 hours, and who will need admission in intensive care in the next two days. Equipping primary care settings and hospitals with these tools will help to restore previous standards of health care during the upcoming waves of infections, particularly in countries with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Machine Learning , Retrospective Studies
6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103709, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821117

ABSTRACT

The impact on mortality associated with covid-19 today exceeds five million deaths worldwide, and the number of deaths continues to rise. The complications of the survivors, socio-economic implications at a global level, economic limitations in the health systems, and physical and emotional exhaustion of health personnel are detrimental. Therapeutic strategies are required to limit the evolution of the disease, improve the prognosis of critically ill patients, and, in countries with low purchasing power, create affordable alternatives that can help contain the evolution towards the severity of infected people with mild to moderate symptoms. The misinformation and myths that today are more frequent on social networks and the implementation of practices without scientific support is a problem that aggravates the general panorama. This review aims to concentrate on the best evidence for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection in a simple and summarized manner, addressing therapies from their bases to the most innovative alternatives available today.

7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780238

ABSTRACT

Background: A previously published meta-analysis found that about one-third of the general population experienced some mental health problem during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially leading to a late mental health crisis. We aimed to describe the acute, short-term, and long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Methods: A one-year online survey (S) was conducted in Spain (April 2020 - March 2021). We recruited 18 180 subjects using a virtual respondent-driven snowball sampling method (S1 April 2020, n = 6108; S2 October-November 2020, n = 6418; S3 March 2021, n = 5654). Participants completed the Spanish Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: Overall, our results suggest a progressive increase in the prevalence of anxiety and stress throughout the pandemic waves and relative stability of depression. Women had a greater probability of having depression, anxiety, or stress than men in each survey (P < 0.001). The youngest group (aged 18-24) reported a higher probability (P < 0.05) of having depression, anxiety, or stress than the older groups in S1 and S2. Middle-aged people (25-59) had a greater probability of being a case in the DASS-21 scales than the oldest group (60+), except for depression in men (P = 0.179). In S3, the trend changed: the youngest group showed a decrease in depression and stress while the oldest group showed a dramatic increase (anxiety: men = 664.5%, women = 273.52%; stress: men = 786%, women = 431.37%). Conclusions: It is plausible to conclude that COVID-19 psychological fatigue exists, especially in middle-aged and older adults. Strategies to assist people who have fewer coping skills should be implemented in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Fatigue , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330055

ABSTRACT

We aim to understand the factors that drive citizens of different countries adhere to recommended self-protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey data obtained through the COVID Impact project was used. We combined previous evidence and change-point detection analysis to establish variations in self-protective behaviors across participating countries whose effect was then assessed by means of interrupted series analysis. A high level of compliance with health and governmental authorities’ recommendations were generally observed in all countries. The level of stress decreased near the period when countries such as Cyprus, Greece or the United Kingdom relaxed their prevention behavior recommendations. However, this relaxation of behaviors did not occur in countries such as Germany, Ireland or the United States. When the daily number of recorded COVID-19 cases decreased, people relaxed their protective behaviors (Cyprus, Greece, Ireland), although the opposite trend was observed in Switzerland. COVID-19 self-protective behavior following has been heterogeneous across countries examined. Our findings show that there is probably no single winning strategy for exiting future health crises, as similar interventions, aimed to promote self-protective behaviors, may be received differently depending on the singular population groups and on the specific geographical context in which they are implemented.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 775032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715054

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic fundamentally disrupted humans' social life and behavior. Public health measures may have inadvertently impacted how people care for each other. This study investigated prosocial behavior, its association well-being, and predictors of prosocial behavior during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and sought to understand whether region-specific differences exist. Participants (N = 9,496) from eight regions clustering multiple countries around the world responded to a cross-sectional online-survey investigating the psychological consequences of the first upsurge of lockdowns in spring 2020. Prosocial behavior was reported to occur frequently. Multiple regression analyses showed that prosocial behavior was associated with better well-being consistently across regions. With regard to predictors of prosocial behavior, high levels of perceived social support were most strongly associated with prosocial behavior, followed by high levels of perceived stress, positive affect and psychological flexibility. Sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of prosocial behavior were similar across regions.

10.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2040191, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The state of alarm declared in Spain in response to the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has had far-reaching consequences in all areas of life. At the University of Granada's (UGR) Faculty of Medicine, online teaching was implemented immediately without any preexisting plan. Second-year undergraduates in medicine, particularly those enrolled in the subject 'Bases of Internal Medicine,' would normally undergo clinical skills circuits in face-to-face group settings. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate undergraduates' acquisition of specific transversal skills by means of an integrated online working system. DESIGN: Before the pandemic, teaching/learning methods consisted of 1) face-to-face group work; 2) teletutoring; 3) written work uploaded to the PRADO online platform for marking by the teletutor; and 4) presentation of written work to the group. As a result of the lockdown, presentations in class were suspended and replaced by online presentations. The means adopted by students in online presentations were freely chosen using various communication techniques: linear projection systems (6); acting/simulation (4); dramatization (1); and role-playing (1). RESULTS: The number of online clinical skills circuits developed was 12, one for each of the clinical skills circuits established for imparting this subject. A total of 12 presentations were made by the 10 groups, each lasting 15 minutes followed by a 5-minute discussion to settle any questions raised. The presentations were marked jointly by the teaching staff, coordinator, and students. CONCLUSIONS: The transference of classroom learning to the online environment proved an essential resource for teaching/learning clinical/practical skills during the lockdown, which have never before been imparted at distance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Communicable Disease Control , Faculty , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Students
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317828

ABSTRACT

A descriptive analysis of 416 documents was performed using bibliometric techniques, in order to gather existing knowledge in circular economy (CE) focusing on waste management (2007–2020). The results of this study indicate that annual scientific production increased 94% in the last five years;highlighting the countries of Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, China, Brazil and India. The conceptual analysis indicates strong linkage between CE and sustainable production, waste management and recycling. Emerging research trends evolved from processes and industry oriented approach (2017), towards waste management, recycling and circular economy (2019) and sustainable development and urban solid waste (2020). Through intellectual analysis, schools of thought were identified, where the most influential authors such as Wang, Ghisellini, Zhang and the European Commission with the greatest connection with other authors stand out. Results found denote the challenge represented by the implementation of comprehensive policies in CE, in addition to measure its contribution to sustainable development. The above, being a key alternative for green recovery in response to current COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572373

ABSTRACT

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the first COVID-19 wave, to examine the impact of COVID-19 on mental health using an anonymous online survey, enrolling 9565 individuals in 78 countries. The current sub-study examined the impact of the pandemic and the associated lockdown measures on the mental health, and protective behaviors of cancer patients in comparison to non-cancer participants. Furthermore, 264 participants from 30 different countries reported being cancer patients. The median age was 51.5 years, 79.9% were female, and 28% had breast cancer. Cancer participants reported higher self-efficacy to follow recommended national guidelines regarding COVID-19 protective behaviors compared to non-cancer participants (p < 0.01). They were less stressed (p < 0.01), more psychologically flexible (p < 0.01), and had higher levels of positive affect compared to non-cancer participants. Amongst cancer participants, the majority (80.3%) reported COVID-19, not their cancer, as their priority during the first wave of the pandemic and females reported higher levels of stress compared to males. In conclusion, cancer participants appeared to have handled the unpredictable nature of the first wave of the pandemic efficiently, with a positive attitude towards an unknown and otherwise frightening situation. Larger, cancer population specific and longitudinal studies are warranted to ensure adequate medical and psychological care for cancer patients.

13.
Mathematics ; 9(19):2409, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1444263

ABSTRACT

A proposal is made to employ stochastic models, based on diffusion processes, to represent the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. Specifically, two diffusion processes are proposed whose mean functions obey multi-sigmoidal Gompertz and Weibull-type patterns. Both are constructed by introducing polynomial functions in the ordinary differential equations that originate the classical Gompertz and Weibull curves. The estimation of the parameters is approached by maximum likelihood. Various associated problems are analyzed, such as the determination of initial solutions for the necessary numerical methods in practical cases, as well as Bayesian methods to determine the degree of the polynomial. Additionally, strategies are suggested to determine the best model to fit specific data. A practical case is developed from data originating from several Spanish regions during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The determination of the inflection time instants, which correspond to the peaks of infection and deaths, is given special attention. To deal with this particular issue, point estimation as well as first-passage times have been considered.

14.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(7): 356-357, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386227
15.
Mathematics ; 9(16):1835, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1376888

ABSTRACT

A joint and unified vision of stochastic diffusion models associated with the family of hyperbolastic curves is presented. The motivation behind this approach stems from the fact that all hyperbolastic curves verify a linear differential equation of the Malthusian type. By virtue of this, and by adding a multiplicative noise to said ordinary differential equation, a diffusion process may be associated with each curve whose mean function is said curve. The inference in the resulting processes is presented jointly, as well as the strategies developed to obtain the initial solutions necessary for the numerical resolution of the system of equations resulting from the application of the maximum likelihood method. The common perspective presented is especially useful for the implementation of the necessary procedures for fitting the models to real data. Some examples based on simulated data support the suitability of the development described in the present paper.

16.
Blood Purif ; 51(4): 309-316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 can be caused by multiple mechanisms. Renal resistive index (RRI) is a noninvasive instrument to evaluate kidney hemodynamics, and it is obtained by analysis of intrarenal arterial waves using Doppler ultrasound. This study aimed to determine the role of RRI in predicting AKI and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 65 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the critical care unit from April 1, 2020, to June 20, 2020. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Cardiac, pulmonary, and kidney ultrasonographic evaluations were performed in a protocolized way. RESULTS: In this cohort, 65 patients were included, mean age was 53.4 years, 79% were male, and 35% were diabetic. Thirty-four percent of patients developed AKI, 12% required RRT, and 35% died. Of the patients who developed AKI, 68% had RRI ≥ 0.7. Also, 75% of the patients who required RRT had RRI ≥ 0.7. In the adjusted Cox model, the RRI ≥ 0.7 was associated with higher mortality (HR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.19-6.82, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Critical care ultrasonography is a noninvasive, reproducible, and accurate bedside method that has proven its usefulness. An elevated RRI may have a role in predicting AKI, RRT initiation, and mortality in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mathematics ; 9(9):959, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1238906

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this work is to introduce a stochastic model associated with the one described by the T-growth curve, which is in turn a modification of the logistic curve. By conveniently reformulating the T curve, it may be obtained as a solution to a linear differential equation. This greatly simplifies the mathematical treatment of the model and allows a diffusion process to be defined, which is derived from the non-homogeneous lognormal diffusion process, whose mean function is a T curve. This allows the phenomenon under study to be viewed in a dynamic way. In these pages, the distribution of the process is obtained, as are its main characteristics. The maximum likelihood estimation procedure is carried out by optimization via metaheuristic algorithms. Thanks to an exhaustive study of the curve, a strategy is obtained to bound the parametric space, which is a requirement for the application of various swarm-based metaheuristic algorithms. A simulation study is presented to show the validity of the bounding procedure and an example based on real data is provided.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186950

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the mediation of psychological flexibility, prosociality and coping in the impacts of illness perceptions toward COVID-19 on mental health among seven regions. Convenience sampled online survey was conducted between April and June 2020 from 9130 citizens in 21 countries. Illness perceptions toward COVID-19, psychological flexibility, prosociality, coping and mental health, socio-demographics, lockdown-related variables and COVID-19 status were assessed. Results showed that psychological flexibility was the only significant mediator in the relationship between illness perceptions toward COVID-19 and mental health across all regions (all ps = 0.001-0.021). Seeking social support was the significant mediator across subgroups (all ps range = <0.001-0.005) except from the Hong Kong sample (p = 0.06) and the North and South American sample (p = 0.53). No mediation was found for problem-solving (except from the Northern European sample, p = 0.009). Prosociality was the significant mediator in the Hong Kong sample (p = 0.016) and the Eastern European sample (p = 0.008). These findings indicate that fostering psychological flexibility may help to mitigate the adverse mental impacts of COVID-19 across regions. Roles of seeking social support, problem-solving and prosociality vary across regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Communicable Disease Control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 907-916, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177867

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a correctional facility and recommend mitigation strategies.Methods. From April 29 to May 15, 2020, we established the point prevalence of COVID-19 among incarcerated persons and staff within a correctional facility in Arkansas. Participants provided respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 testing and completed questionnaires on symptoms and factors associated with transmission.Results. Of 1647 incarcerated persons and 128 staff tested, 30.5% of incarcerated persons (range by housing unit = 0.0%-58.2%) and 2.3% of staff tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among those who tested positive and responded to symptom questions (431 incarcerated persons, 3 staff), 81.2% and 33.3% were asymptomatic, respectively. Most incarcerated persons (58.0%) reported wearing cloth face coverings 8 hours or less per day, and 63.3% reported close contact with someone other than their bunkmate.Conclusions. If testing remained limited to symptomatic individuals, fewer cases would have been detected or detection would have been delayed, allowing transmission to continue. Rapid implementation of mass testing and strict enforcement of infection prevention and control measures may be needed to mitigate spread of SARS-CoV-2 in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Correctional Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Semin Oncol ; 48(2): 145-151, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leading scientific societies have recommended delaying and/or suspending active cancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, data on this novel infection in patients with a diagnosis of cancer receiving active treatment are scarce and it is unknown if these recommendations could have repercussions on future progress of the disease. The main objective of this study is to learn the COVID-19 incidence rate in outpatients with cancer receiving active treatment. METHODS: This work is a retrospective cohort study that included all patients with a diagnosis of cancer who received active cancer treatment in two Andalusian hospitals between February 26 and May 13, 2020. Variables regarding the patient, tumor, and development of COVID-19 were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in these patients was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 673 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. There was a low rate of comorbidity and 12.1% had an ECOG >2. Breast cancer was the most common cancer (41%), followed by colorectal and lung cancer. Stage IV cancer was reported in 52.7% of patients. The most common treatment was chemotherapy (53.9%). Treatment was delayed or suspended in 6% of patients. Only three patients developed COVID-19. The cumulative incidence was 0.44% and one person died due to infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present retrospective cohort study we found a low incidence of COVID-19 infection in patients with cancer receiving active treatment in an outpatient setting. The sociodemographic factors of Andalusia may explain why these results differ from those presented by other colleagues in Spain, but raise questions about whether universal recommendations may put the benefits of antineoplastic therapy at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
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