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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3645, 2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908172

ABSTRACT

Recombination is an evolutionary process by which many pathogens generate diversity and acquire novel functions. Although a common occurrence during coronavirus replication, detection of recombination is only feasible when genetically distinct viruses contemporaneously infect the same host. Here, we identify an instance of SARS-CoV-2 superinfection, whereby an individual was infected with two distinct viral variants: Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Epsilon (B.1.429). This superinfection was first noted when an Alpha genome sequence failed to exhibit the classic S gene target failure behavior used to track this variant. Full genome sequencing from four independent extracts reveals that Alpha variant alleles comprise around 75% of the genomes, whereas the Epsilon variant alleles comprise around 20% of the sample. Further investigation reveals the presence of numerous recombinant haplotypes spanning the genome, specifically in the spike, nucleocapsid, and ORF 8 coding regions. These findings support the potential for recombination to reshape SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Virchows Arch ; 479(4): 827-833, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012211

ABSTRACT

We present results from clinical, radiologic, gas exchange, lung mechanics, and fibre-optic bronchoscopy-guided transbronchial biopsies in a case of acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). This report highlights the pulmonary, immunological, and inflammatory changes found during acute diffuse alveolar damage and the later organizing phase. An early diffuse alveolar damage pattern with predominant epithelial involvement with active recruitment of T cells and monocytes was observed followed by a late organizing pattern with pneumocyte hyperplasia, inflammatory infiltration, prominent endotheliitis, and secondary germinal centers. The patient's deterioration paralleling the late immuno-pathological findings based the decision to administer intravenous corticosteroids, resulting in clinical, gasometric, and radiologic improvement. We believe that real-time clinicopathological correlation, along with the description of the immunological processes at play, will contribute to the full clinical picture of Covid-19 and might lead to a more rational approach in the precise timing of anti-inflammatory, anti-cytokine, or steroid therapies.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Aged , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Biopsy/methods , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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