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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110183

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have allowed for a significant decrease in COVID-19 risk, and new antiviral medications can prevent disease progression if given early in the course of the disease. The rapid and accurate estimation of the risk of severe disease in new patients is needed to prioritize the treatment of high-risk patients and maximize lives saved. We used electronic health records from 101,039 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, since the beginning of the pandemic and until 30 November 2021, in a national healthcare organization in Israel to build logistic models estimating the probability of subsequent hospitalization and death of newly infected patients based on a few major risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1C, kidney function, and the presence of hypertension, pulmonary disease, and malignancy) and the number of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine doses received. The model's performance was assessed by 10-fold cross-validation: the area under the curve was 0.889 for predicting hospitalization and 0.967 for predicting mortality. A total of 50%, 80%, and 90% of death events could be predicted with respective specificities of 98.6%, 95.2%, and 91.2%. These models enable the rapid identification of individuals at high risk for hospitalization and death when infected, and they can be used to prioritize patients to receive scarce medications or booster vaccination. The calculator is available online.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(6):1238, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894018

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have allowed for a significant decrease in COVID-19 risk, and new antiviral medications can prevent disease progression if given early in the course of the disease. The rapid and accurate estimation of the risk of severe disease in new patients is needed to prioritize the treatment of high-risk patients and maximize lives saved. We used electronic health records from 101,039 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, since the beginning of the pandemic and until 30 November 2021, in a national healthcare organization in Israel to build logistic models estimating the probability of subsequent hospitalization and death of newly infected patients based on a few major risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1C, kidney function, and the presence of hypertension, pulmonary disease, and malignancy) and the number of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine doses received. The model's performance was assessed by 10-fold cross-validation: the area under the curve was 0.889 for predicting hospitalization and 0.967 for predicting mortality. A total of 50%, 80%, and 90% of death events could be predicted with respective specificities of 98.6%, 95.2%, and 91.2%. These models enable the rapid identification of individuals at high risk for hospitalization and death when infected, and they can be used to prioritize patients to receive scarce medications or booster vaccination. The calculator is available online.

3.
iScience ; 25(5): 104311, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804381

ABSTRACT

Novel strategies are needed to identify drug targets and treatments for the COVID-19 pandemic. The altered gene expression of virus-infected host cells provides an opportunity to specifically inhibit viral propagation via targeting the synthetic lethal and synthetic dosage lethal (SL/SDL) partners of such altered host genes. Pursuing this disparate antiviral strategy, here we comprehensively analyzed multiple in vitro and in vivo bulk and single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infection to predict clinically relevant candidate antiviral targets that are SL/SDL with altered host genes. The predicted SL/SDL-based targets are highly enriched for infected cell inhibiting genes reported in four SARS-CoV-2 CRISPR-Cas9 genome-wide genetic screens. We further selected a focused subset of 26 genes that we experimentally tested in a targeted siRNA screen using human Caco-2 cells. Notably, as predicted, knocking down these targets reduced viral replication and cell viability only under the infected condition without harming noninfected healthy cells.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune protection following either vaccination or infection with SARS-CoV-2 decreases over time. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe clinical and sociodemographic characteristics associated with COVID-19 infection at least 14 days after booster vaccination in the Israeli population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adult members of Leumit Health Services (LHS) in Israel. Nasopharyngeal swabs were examined for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the peripheral blood before booster vaccination were evaluated. RESULTS: Between 1 February 2021 and 30 November 2021, 136,683 individuals in LHS were vaccinated with a booster (third dose) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Of these, 1171 (0.9%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 by testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR at least >14 days after the booster vaccination. The COVID-19-positive group was characterized by higher rates of chronic kidney disease than the matched COVID-19-negative group (43 (3.7%) vs. 3646 (2.7%); p = 0.039). Anemia, lower peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, C3 Complement, cholesterol, and prothrombin time were also associated with COVID-19 after booster vaccination. CONCLUSION: People with chronic kidney disease and anemia should be included in possible future annual SARS-CoV-2 vaccination recommendations.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580333

ABSTRACT

Immune protection following either vaccination or infection with SARS-CoV-2 is thought to decrease over time. We designed a retrospective study, conducted at Leumit Health Services in Israel, to determine the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies following administration of two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, or SARS-CoV-2 infection in unvaccinated individuals. Antibody titers were measured between 31 January 2021, and 31 July 2021 in two mutually exclusive groups: (i) vaccinated individuals who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine and had no history of previous infection with COVID-19 and (ii) SARS-CoV-2 convalescents who had not received the vaccine. A total of 2653 individuals fully vaccinated by two doses of vaccine during the study period and 4361 convalescent patients were included. Higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were observed in vaccinated individuals (median 1581 AU/mL IQR [533.8-5644.6]) after the second vaccination than in convalescent individuals (median 355.3 AU/mL IQR [141.2-998.7]; p < 0.001). In vaccinated subjects, antibody titers decreased by up to 38% each subsequent month while in convalescents they decreased by less than 5% per month. Six months after BNT162b2 vaccination 16.1% subjects had antibody levels below the seropositivity threshold of <50 AU/mL, while only 10.8% of convalescent patients were below <50 AU/mL threshold after 9 months from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study demonstrates individuals who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine have different kinetics of antibody levels compared to patients who had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with higher initial levels but a much faster exponential decrease in the first group.

6.
BMJ ; 375: e067873, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether time elapsed since the second injection of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was significantly associated with the risk of covid-19 infection after vaccination in people who received two vaccine injections. DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Electronic health records of a large state mandated healthcare organisation, Israel. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥18 years who had received a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test between 15 May 2021 and 17 September 2021, at least three weeks after their second vaccine injection, had not received a third vaccine injection, and had no history of covid-19 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive result for the RT-PCR test. Individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and controls were matched for week of testing, age category, and demographic group (ultra-orthodox Jews, individuals of Arab ancestry, and the general population). Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: 83 057 adults received an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period and 9.6% had a positive result. Time elapsed since the vaccine injection was significantly longer in individuals who tested positive (P<0.001). Adjusted odds ratio for infection at time intervals >90 days since vaccination were significantly increased compared with the reference of <90 days: 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.67 to 3.36) for 90-119 days, 2.66 (1.94 to 3.66) for 120-149 days, 2.82 (2.07 to 3.84) for 150-179 days, and 2.82 (2.07 to 3.85) for ≥180 days (P<0.001 for each 30 day interval). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population of adults tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR after two doses of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine, a gradual increase in the risk of infection was seen for individuals who received their second vaccine dose after at least 90 days.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(11): e10260, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488874

ABSTRACT

Tremendous progress has been made to control the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, effective therapeutic options are still rare. Drug repurposing and combination represent practical strategies to address this urgent unmet medical need. Viruses, including coronaviruses, are known to hijack host metabolism to facilitate viral proliferation, making targeting host metabolism a promising antiviral approach. Here, we describe an integrated analysis of 12 published in vitro and human patient gene expression datasets on SARS-CoV-2 infection using genome-scale metabolic modeling (GEM), revealing complicated host metabolism reprogramming during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We next applied the GEM-based metabolic transformation algorithm to predict anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets that counteract the virus-induced metabolic changes. We successfully validated these targets using published drug and genetic screen data and by performing an siRNA assay in Caco-2 cells. Further generating and analyzing RNA-sequencing data of remdesivir-treated Vero E6 cell samples, we predicted metabolic targets acting in combination with remdesivir, an approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug. Our study provides clinical data-supported candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets for future evaluation, demonstrating host metabolism targeting as a promising antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Datasets as Topic , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Vero Cells
8.
Nat Methods ; 18(10): 1181-1191, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447314

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are critical for intercellular communication in human health and disease, but the investigation of cytokine signaling activity has remained challenging due to the short half-lives of cytokines and the complexity/redundancy of cytokine functions. To address these challenges, we developed the Cytokine Signaling Analyzer (CytoSig; https://cytosig.ccr.cancer.gov/ ), providing both a database of target genes modulated by cytokines and a predictive model of cytokine signaling cascades from transcriptomic profiles. We collected 20,591 transcriptome profiles for human cytokine, chemokine and growth factor responses. This atlas of transcriptional patterns induced by cytokines enabled the reliable prediction of signaling activities in distinct cell populations in infectious diseases, chronic inflammation and cancer using bulk and single-cell transcriptomic data. CytoSig revealed previously unidentified roles of many cytokines, such as BMP6 as an anti-inflammatory factor, and identified candidate therapeutic targets in human inflammatory diseases, such as CXCL8 for severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Databases, Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Signal Transduction/physiology
9.
Elife ; 102021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328261

ABSTRACT

Background: Until coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drugs specifically developed to treat COVID-19 become more widely accessible, it is crucial to identify whether existing medications have a protective effect against severe disease. Toward this objective, we conducted a large population study in Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest healthcare provider in Israel, insuring over 4.7 million members. Methods: Two case-control matched cohorts were assembled to assess which medications, acquired in the last month, decreased the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. Case patients were adults aged 18 to 95 hospitalized for COVID-19. In the first cohort, five control patients, from the general population, were matched to each case (n=6202); in the second cohort, two non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive control patients were matched to each case (n=6919). The outcome measures for a medication were: odds ratio (OR) for hospitalization, 95% confidence interval (CI), and the p-value, using Fisher's exact test. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results: Medications associated with most significantly reduced odds for COVID-19 hospitalization include: ubiquinone (OR=0.185, 95% CI [0.058 to 0.458], p<0.001), ezetimibe (OR=0.488, 95% CI [0.377 to 0.622], p<0.001), rosuvastatin (OR=0.673, 95% CI [0.596 to 0.758], p<0.001), flecainide (OR=0.301, 95% CI [0.118 to 0.641], p<0.001), and vitamin D (OR=0.869, 95% CI [0.792 to 0.954], p<0.003). Remarkably, acquisition of artificial tears, eye care wipes, and several ophthalmological products were also associated with decreased risk for hospitalization. Conclusions: Ubiquinone, ezetimibe, and rosuvastatin, all related to the cholesterol synthesis pathway were associated with reduced hospitalization risk. These findings point to a promising protective effect which should be further investigated in controlled, prospective studies. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, NCI.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Rosuvastatin Calcium/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Ubiquinone/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Young Adult
10.
Molecular Systems Biology ; 16(7), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-734242

ABSTRACT

TheCOVID-19 pandemic caused bySARS-CoV-2 has is a global health challenge. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor forSARS-CoV-2 entry. Recent studies have suggested that patients with hypertension and diabetes treated withACEinhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers have a higher risk ofCOVID-19 infection as these drugs could upregulateACE2, motivating the study ofACE2modulation by drugs in current clinical use. Here, we mined published datasets to determine the effects of hundreds of clinically approved drugs onACE2expression. We find thatACEIs are enriched forACE2-upregulating drugs, while antineoplastic agents are enriched forACE2-downregulating drugs. Vorinostat and isotretinoin are the topACE2up/downregulators, respectively, in cell lines. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome andCOVID-19, significantly upregulatesACE2bothin vitroandin vivo. Further topACE2regulatorsin vivoor in primary cells include erlotinib and bleomycin in the lung and vancomycin, cisplatin, and probenecid in the kidney. Our study provides leads for future work studyingACE2expression modulators.

11.
Mol Syst Biol ; 16(7): e9628, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707164

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has is a global health challenge. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Recent studies have suggested that patients with hypertension and diabetes treated with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers have a higher risk of COVID-19 infection as these drugs could upregulate ACE2, motivating the study of ACE2 modulation by drugs in current clinical use. Here, we mined published datasets to determine the effects of hundreds of clinically approved drugs on ACE2 expression. We find that ACEIs are enriched for ACE2-upregulating drugs, while antineoplastic agents are enriched for ACE2-downregulating drugs. Vorinostat and isotretinoin are the top ACE2 up/downregulators, respectively, in cell lines. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used in treating severe acute respiratory syndrome and COVID-19, significantly upregulates ACE2 both in vitro and in vivo. Further top ACE2 regulators in vivo or in primary cells include erlotinib and bleomycin in the lung and vancomycin, cisplatin, and probenecid in the kidney. Our study provides leads for future work studying ACE2 expression modulators.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Bleomycin/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Drug Design , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Fluphenazine/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , MCF-7 Cells , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Biology , Up-Regulation , Vemurafenib/pharmacology
12.
Nature ; 586(7827): 113-119, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672174

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of the severe pneumonia-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1. The development of a vaccine is likely to take at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline for approval of a new antiviral therapeutic agent can exceed 10 years. Thus, repurposing of known drugs could substantially accelerate the deployment of new therapies for COVID-19. Here we profiled a library of drugs encompassing approximately 12,000 clinical-stage or Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecules to identify candidate therapeutic drugs for COVID-19. We report the identification of 100 molecules that inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, including 21 drugs that exhibit dose-response relationships. Of these, thirteen were found to harbour effective concentrations commensurate with probable achievable therapeutic doses in patients, including the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod2-4 and the cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825 and ONO 5334. Notably, MDL-28170, ONO 5334 and apilimod were found to antagonize viral replication in human pneumocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, and apilimod also demonstrated antiviral efficacy in a primary human lung explant model. Since most of the molecules identified in this study have already advanced into the clinic, their known pharmacological and human safety profiles will enable accelerated preclinical and clinical evaluation of these drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/analysis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Synergism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hydrazones , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Models, Biological , Morpholines/analysis , Morpholines/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pyrimidines , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/analysis , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Triazines/analysis , Triazines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
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