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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052495, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms during the first surge of COVID-19 in the USA, and their associations with COVID-19-related emotional distress, health self-management and healthcare utilisation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 (1-22 May 2020) survey data from the ongoing Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) study. SETTING: Seven academic and community health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: 565 adults aged 23-88 with one or more chronic conditions completing at least one prior C3 study wave. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically relevant anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms. Self-reported emotional and health-related responses to COVID-19 were measured through a combination of single-item questions and validated measures. RESULTS: Rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 14% (81/563) and 15% (84/563), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were then each separately associated with greater worry about contracting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR) 2.32, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.53; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.54), greater stress (RR 4.93, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.59; RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.61) and loneliness (RR 3.82, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.60; RR 5.37, 95% CI 3.21 to 8.98), greater avoidance of the doctor (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.49; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36) and difficulty managing health (least square means (LS Means) 6.09, 95% CI 5.25 to 6.92 vs 4.23, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75; LS Means 5.85, 95% CI 5.04 to 6.65 vs 4.22, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75) and medications (LS Means 3.71, 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43 vs 2.47, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.92) due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and addressing mental health concerns may be an important factor to consider in COVID-19 prevention and management among high-risk medical populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(11): 3285-3292, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The US outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accelerated rapidly over a short time to become a public health crisis. OBJECTIVE: To assess how high-risk adults' COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and sense of preparedness changed from the onset of the US outbreak (March 13-20, 2020) to the acceleration phase (March 27-April 7, 2020). DESIGN: Longitudinal, two-wave telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: 588 predominately older adults with ≥ 1 chronic condition recruited from 4 active, federally funded studies in Chicago. MAIN MEASURES: Self-reported knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms and prevention, related beliefs, behaviors, and sense of preparedness. KEY RESULTS: From the onset to the acceleration phase, participants increasingly perceived COVID-19 to be a serious public health threat, reported more changes to their daily routine and plans, and reported greater preparedness. The proportion of respondents who believed they were "not at all likely" to get the virus decreased slightly (24.9 to 22.4%; p = 0.04), but there was no significant change in the proportion of those who were unable to accurately identify ways to prevent infection (29.2 to 25.7%; p 0.14). In multivariable analyses, black adults and those with lower health literacy were more likely to report less perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 (black adults: relative risk (RR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.44, p = 0.02; marginal health literacy: RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.26-3.07, p < 0.01). Individuals with low health literacy remained more likely to feel unprepared for the outbreak (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11-2.92, p = 0.02) and to express confidence in the federal government response (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.49-3.00, p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Adults at higher risk for COVID-19 continue to lack critical knowledge about prevention. While participants reported greater changes to daily routines and plans, disparities continued to exist in perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 and in preparedness. Public health messaging to date may not be effectively reaching vulnerable communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chicago , Female , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
3.
J Community Health ; 45(6): 1149-1157, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709634

ABSTRACT

Accurate understanding of COVID-19 safety recommendations early in the outbreak was complicated by inconsistencies in public health and media messages. We sought to characterize high-risk adults' knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, prevention strategies, and prevention behaviors. We used data from the Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) survey collected between March 13 thru March 20, 2020. A total of 673 predominately older adults with ≥ 1 chronic condition completed the telephone interview. Knowledge was assessed by asking participants to name three symptoms of COVID-19 and three actions to prevent infection. Participants were then asked if and how they had changed plans due to coronavirus. Most participants could identify three symptoms (71.0%) and three preventive actions (69.2%). Commonly reported symptoms included: fever (78.5%), cough (70.6%), and shortness of breath (45.2%); preventive actions included: washing hands (86.5%) and social distancing (86.2%). More than a third of participants reported social distancing themselves (38.3%), and 28.8% reported obtaining prescription medication to prepare for the outbreak. In multivariable analyses, no participant characteristics were associated with COVID-19 knowledge. Women were more likely than men, and Black adults were less likely than White adults to report practicing social distancing. Individuals with low health literacy were less likely to report obtaining medication supplies. In conclusion, though most higher-risk individuals were aware of social distancing as a prevention strategy early in the outbreak, less than half reported enacting it, and racial disparities were apparent. Consistent messaging and the provision of tangible resources may improve future adherence to safety recommendations.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , African Americans , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chicago , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(2): 100-109, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolving outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is requiring social distancing and other measures to protect public health. However, messaging has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine COVID-19 awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and related behaviors among U.S. adults who are more vulnerable to complications of infection because of age and comorbid conditions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey linked to 3 active clinical trials and 1 cohort study. SETTING: 5 academic internal medicine practices and 2 federally qualified health centers. PATIENTS: 630 adults aged 23 to 88 years living with 1 or more chronic conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A fourth (24.6%) of participants were "very worried" about getting the coronavirus. Nearly a third could not correctly identify symptoms (28.3%) or ways to prevent infection (30.2%). One in 4 adults (24.6%) believed that they were "not at all likely" to get the virus, and 21.9% reported that COVID-19 had little or no effect on their daily routine. One in 10 respondents was very confident that the federal government could prevent a nationwide outbreak. In multivariable analyses, participants who were black, were living below the poverty level, and had low health literacy were more likely to be less worried about COVID-19, to not believe that they would become infected, and to feel less prepared for an outbreak. Those with low health literacy had greater confidence in the federal government response. LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study of adults with underlying health conditions in 1 city during the initial week of the COVID-19 U.S. outbreak. CONCLUSION: Many adults with comorbid conditions lacked critical knowledge about COVID-19 and, despite concern, were not changing routines or plans. Noted disparities suggest that greater public health efforts may be needed to mobilize the most vulnerable communities. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
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