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Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S468-S468, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849367
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S426-S426, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849216
World Scientific Series in Global Health Economics and Public Policy ; 9:35-49, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1794448


The following sections are included: Key Message Introduction Viral Entry into Cells and the Renin Angiotensin System Immune System Responses and Viral Evasion Factors Affecting Pathogenesis References. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326691


Leveraging prior viral genome sequencing data to make predictions on whether an unknown, emergent virus harbors a 'phenotype-of-concern' has been a long-sought goal of genomic epidemiology. A predictive phenotype model built from nucleotide-level information alone has previously been considered un-tenable with respect to RNA viruses due to the ultra-high intra-sequence variance of their genomes, even within closely related clades. Building from our prior work developing a degenerate k-mer method to accommodate this high intra-sequence variation of RNA virus genomes for modeling frameworks, and leveraging a taxonomic 'group-shuffle-split' paradigm on complete coronavirus assemblies from prior to October 2018, we trained multiple regularized logistic regression classifiers at the nucleotide k-mer level capable of accurately predicting withheld SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences as human pathogens and accurately predicting withheld Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) genome sequences as non-human pathogens. LASSO feature selection identified several degenerate nucleotide predictor motifs with high model coefficients for the human pathogen class that were present across widely disparate classes of coronaviruses. However, these motifs differed in which genes they were present in, what specific codons were used to encode them, and what the translated amino acid motif was. This emphasizes the importance of a phenetic view of emerging pathogenic RNA viruses, as opposed to the canonical phylogenetic interpretations most-commonly used to track and manage viral zoonoses. Applying our model to more recent Orthocoronavirinae genomes deposited since October 2018 yields a novel contextual view of pathogen-potential across bat-related, canine-related, porcine-related, and rodent-related coronaviruses and critical adaptations which may have contributed to the emergence of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Finally, we discuss the utility of these predictive models (and their associated predictor motifs) to novel biosurveillance protocols that substantially increase the 'pound-for-pound' information content of field-collected sequencing data and make a strong argument for the necessity of routine collection and sequencing of zoonotic viruses.

Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 8: 20543581211052185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501967


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal complication of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Binding of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, to its viral receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), results in viral entry and may cause AKI. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the frequencies of AKI and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill COVID-19 patients and compared those frequencies with patients who were infected by respiratory viruses that bind or downregulate ACE2 (ACE2-associated viruses) and viruses that do not bind nor downregulate ACE2 (non-ACE2-associated viruses). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Observational studies on COVID-19 and other respiratory viral infections reporting AKI and RRT were included. The exclusion criteria were non-English articles, non-peer-reviewed articles, review articles, studies that included patients under the age of 18, studies including fewer than 10 patients, and studies not reporting AKI and RRT rates. PATIENTS: Adult COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and influenza patients. MEASUREMENTS: We extracted the following data from the included studies: author, year, study location, age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, shock, vasopressor use, mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU mortality, AKI, and RRT. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles reporting AKI or RRT. AKI was defined by authors of included studies. Critical illness was defined by ICU admission. We performed a random effects meta-analysis to calculate pooled estimates for the AKI and RRT rate within each virus group using a random intercept logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 23 655 hospitalized, critically ill COVID-19 patients, AKI frequencies were not significantly different between COVID-19 patients (51%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44%-57%) and critically ill patients infected with ACE2-associated (56%, 95% CI: 37%-74%, P = .610) or non-ACE2-associated viruses (63%, 95% CI: 43%-79%, P = .255). Pooled RRT rates were also not significantly different between critically ill, hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (20%, 95% CI: 16%-24%) and ACE2-associated viruses (18%, 95% CI: 8%-33%, P = .747). RRT rates for both COVID-19 and ACE2-associated viruses were significantly different (P < .001 for both) from non-ACE2-associated viruses (49%, 95% CI: 44%-54%). After adjusting for shock or vasopressor use, AKI and RRT rates were not significantly different between groups. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of this study include the heterogeneity of definitions of AKI that were used across different virus studies. We could not match severity of infection or do propensity matching across studies. Most of the included studies were conducted in retrospective fashion. Last, we did not include non-English publications. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that viral ACE2 association does not significantly alter the rates of AKI and RRT among critically ill patients admitted to the ICU. However, the rate of RRT is lower in patients with COVID-19 or ACE2-associated viruses when compared with patients infected with non-ACE2-binding viruses, which might partly be due to the lower frequencies of shock and use of vasopressors in these two virus groups. Prospective studies are necessary to demonstrate whether modulation of the ACE2 axis with Renin-Angiotensin System inhibitors impacts the rates of AKI and whether they are beneficial or harmful in COVID-19 patients.

MISE EN CONTEXTE: L'insuffisance rénale aiguë (IRA) est une complication potentiellement mortelle de la maladie à coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). Obligatoire du Coronavirus 2 du Syndrome Respiratoire Aigu Sévère (SARS-CoV-2), le virus responsable du COVID-19, à son récepteur, l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine 2 (ACE2), entraîne une entrée virale et peut provoquer une IRA. OBJECTIFS DE L'ÉTUDE: Nous avons effectué une revue systématique et une méta-analyse des fréquences de l'IRA et de la thérapie de remplacement renal (RRT) chez les patients COVID-19 gravement malades et a comparé ces fréquences avec les patients qui ont été infectés par des voies respiratoires virus qui lient ou régulent négativement l'ACE2 (virus associés à l'ACE2) et les virus qui ne régulent pas négativement ni ne lient l'ACE2 (virus non associés à l'ACE2). CADRE ET TYPE D'ÉTUDE: Revue systématique et méta-analyse. Des études d'observation sur le COVID-19 et d'autres infections virales respiratoires signalant une AKI et une RRT ont été incluses. Les critères d'exclusion étaient des articles non anglophones, des articles non évalués par des pairs, des articles de revue, des études incluant des patients moins de 18 ans, les études incluant moins de 10 patients et les études ne rapportant pas les taux d'IRA et de RRT. PATIENTS: Adultes COVID-19, syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS), syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS) et malades de la grippe. MESURES: Nous avons extrait les données suivantes des études incluses : auteur, année, lieu de l'étude, âge, sexe, race, diabète sucré, hypertension, maladie rénale chronique, état de choc, utilisation de vasopresseurs, mortalité, admission en unité de soins intensifs (USI), Mortalité en soins intensifs, AKI et RRT. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Nous avons systématiquement recherché dans PubMed et EMBASE les articles rapportant AKI ou RRT. AKI a été défini par les auteurs des études incluses. La maladie grave a été définie par l'admission aux soins intensifs. Nous avons effectué une méta-analyse à effets aléatoires pour calculer estimations regroupées pour le taux d'IRA et de RRT au sein de chaque groupe de virus à l'aide d'un modèle de régression logistique d'interception aléatoire. RÉSULTATS: Sur 23 655 patients hospitalisés et gravement malades COVID-19, les fréquences AKI n'étaient pas significativement différentes entre patients COVID-19 (51 %, intervalle de confiance à 95 % [IC] : 44 %-57 %) et patients gravement malades infectés par l'ACE2 associé (56 %, IC à 95 % : 37 % à 74 %, P = 0,610) ou des virus non associés à l'ACE2 (63 %, IC à 95 % : 43 % à 79 %, P = 0,255). Tarifs RRT groupés n'étaient pas non plus significativement différents entre les patients hospitalisés gravement malades atteints de COVID-19 (20 %, IC à 95 % : 16 % à 24 %) et virus associés à l'ACE2 (18 %, IC à 95 % : 8 % à 33 %, P = 0,747). Taux de RRT pour les virus associés au COVID-19 et à l'ACE2 étaient significativement différents (P < 0,001 pour les deux) des virus non associés à l'ACE2 (49 %, IC à 95 % : 44 % à 54 %). Après ajustement pour le choc ou l'utilisation de vasopresseurs, les taux d'IRA et de RRT n'étaient pas significativement différents entre les groupes. LIMITES DE L'ÉTUDE: Les limites de cette étude incluent l'hétérogénéité des définitions de l'IRA qui ont été utilisées pour différents virus études. Nous n'avons pas pu faire correspondre la gravité de l'infection ou faire une correspondance de propension entre les études. La plupart des études incluses ont été menées de manière rétrospective. Enfin, nous n'avons pas inclus les publications non anglophones. CONCLUSIONS: Nos résultats suggèrent que l'association virale ACE2 ne modifie pas de manière significative les taux d'IRA et de RRT parmi les patients gravement malades admis aux soins intensifs. Cependant, le taux de RRT est plus faible chez les patients atteints de COVID-19 ou associés à l'ACE2 virus par rapport aux patients infectés par des virus ne se liant pas à l'ACE2, ce qui pourrait être dû en partie à la plus faible fréquences de choc et utilisation de vasopresseurs dans ces deux groupes de virus. Des études prospectives sont nécessaires pour démontrer si la modulation de l'axe ACE2 avec les inhibiteurs du système rénine-angiotensine a un impact sur les taux d'IRA et si ells sont bénéfiques ou nocifs chez les patients COVID-19.

Psychology of Music ; : 17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1480349


The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many aspects of life, including the instructional practices of music educators. The purpose of this study was to examine music teachers' well-being following the disruptions in schooling that resulted from the pandemic in the Spring of 2020. We also investigated how disruptions may have affected music teachers' perceptions of their efficacy and the status of the profession. A questionnaire was completed by 2,023 music teachers who were members of the National Association for Music Education. We collected data related to (a) demographic and institutional information, (b) well-being, (c) teaching efficacy, (d) the impact of the pandemic upon the profession, and (e) the impact of the pandemic upon student learning. The questionnaire included the PERMA Profiler, a measure of well-being, and a portion of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Both PK-12 and collegiate teachers reported significantly lower levels of overall well-being and significantly higher levels of depression than published norms. Additional analyses examined the relationship of individual difference and teaching context variables to the well-being measures, perceptions of teaching efficacy, and perceptions of the pandemic's impact on student learning.