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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(5):957, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820338

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have had an effect on antimicrobial resistance. We compared the prevalence of ESKAPE multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in COVID-19 affected/unaffected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) or infectious disease units at the 'Mater Domini';University Hospital of Catanzaro between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2021. Moreover, an analysis of MDR rates in ICU comparing the pre-pandemic period with the pandemic period was performed, and the possible consequence on in-hospital mortality was explored. One hundred and eighty-four ESKAPE isolates were analyzed from 362 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 199 negative patients. In total, 116 out of 171 Gram-negative isolates were classified as MDR, and a higher frequency was observed in COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 patients (74.2% vs. 60.3%;p = 0.052). A higher rate of MDR ESKAPE bacteria was observed in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU compared with COVID-19 unaffected patients admitted to the same ward in 2019 (88% vs. 80.4%;p = 0.186). Acinetobacter baumannii was the main pathogen in COVID-19 patients (58.7%), where it was the most frequent cause of bloodstream infection with the highest mortality rate (68.7%). Increase in MDR appeared to be associated with COVID-19 but only in the ICU setting. Acinetobacter baumannii was associated with the risk of death, indicating the importance of implementing infection control measures urgently.

2.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(9):2279, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792636

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for COVID-19-related severe respiratory failure. As a matter of fact, ICU admission and invasive ventilation increased the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which is associated with high mortality rate and a considerable burden on length of ICU stay and healthcare costs. The objective of this review was to evaluate data about VAP in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU that developed VAP, including their etiology (limiting to bacteria), clinical characteristics, and outcomes. The analysis was limited to the most recent waves of the epidemic. The main conclusions of this review are the following: (i) P. aeruginosa, Enterobacterales, and S. aureus are more frequently involved as etiology of VAP;(ii) obesity is an important risk factor for the development of VAP;and (iii) data are still scarce and increasing efforts should be put in place to optimize the clinical management and preventative strategies for this complex and life-threatening disease.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718361

ABSTRACT

Despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic not yet being under control, post-Covid-19 syndrome is already a challenging topic: long-term multiorgan sequelae, although increasingly described, have not yet been systematized. As post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact both the working capacity and the relationship life of surviving patients, we performed a systematic review of the evidence published over the last year and currently available in medical literature search databases (MEDLINE/Pubmed) and searching clinical trial registries, to evaluate the available evidence among workers. From 31 publications that initially matched inclusion criteria, 13 studies have been considered suitable for relevance and age of subjects. A wide range of patients (16%-87%) have post-Covid syndrome; pneumological and neuropsychological symptoms were the most common disorders reported. The most frequent organic sequel found in post-Covid patients was pulmonary fibrosis. The number of symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of the disease, and high serum levels of d-dimer were related to high risk of post-Covid syndrome. In conclusion, post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact the health conditions of surviving patients. Rehabilitation and follow-up in multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs should be considered for working-age patients.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581127

ABSTRACT

Despite the "migrants and COVID-19" topic has been neglected since felt marginal concerning other aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it represents a relevant public health issue in the European countries. This report describes COVID-19 containment strategies adopted in a large Italian reception center hosting recently arrived asylum-seeker migrants. Risk assessment and prevention measures adopted were described. Geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was reported. Significant gaps in the knowledge of self-protection measures from contagious diseases and in the perception of the pandemic risk were observed in migrants; health promotion activities, targeted to remove cultural barriers and improve behaviors appropriate to individual protection, were able to fulfill this gap. In low-resource settings, especially in closed communities, the implementation of social distancing strategies, the systematic use of individual protection devices, and active syndromic surveillance are essential tools to limit the risk of outbreaks. In the event of an outbreak, it is relevant to rapidly activate containment procedures based on systematic screening, isolation, and quarantine, taking into consideration the limits of tracing contacts within a closed community. Not being able to trace certain contacts, the geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of cases distribution could be key in the management of the outbreak. Interestingly, positive cases identified in our facility were all clinically pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic. Dedicated strategies are needed to minimize the chance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a limited space such as reception centers and a vulnerable population such as migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Developing Countries , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(2): 214-227, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575441

ABSTRACT

Patients with lung cancer are especially vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a greater than sevenfold higher rate of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19, a greater than threefold higher hospitalization rate with high complication rates, and an estimated case fatality rate of more than 30%. The reasons for the increased vulnerability are not known. In addition, beyond the direct impact of the pandemic on morbidity and mortality among patients with lung cancer, COVID-19, with its disruption of patient care, has also resulted in substantial impact on lung cancer screening and treatment/management.COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective in people with lung cancer. On the basis of the available data, patients with lung cancer should continue their course of cancer treatment and get vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. For unknown reasons, some patients with lung cancer mount poor antibody responses to vaccination. Thus, boosting vaccination seems urgently indicated in this subgroup of vulnerable patients with lung cancer. Nevertheless, many unanswered questions regarding vaccination in this population remain, including the magnitude, quality, and duration of antibody response and the role of innate and acquired cellular immunities for clinical protection. Additional important knowledge gaps also remain, including the following: how can we best protect patients with lung cancer from developing COVID-19, including managing care in patient with lung cancer and the home environment of patients with lung cancer; are there clinical/treatment demographics and tumor molecular demographics that affect severity of COVID-19 disease in patients with lung cancer; does anticancer treatment affect antibody production and protection; does SARS-CoV-2 infection affect the development/progression of lung cancer; and are special measures and vaccine strategies needed for patients with lung cancer as viral variants of concern emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469526

ABSTRACT

Despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic not yet being under control, post-Covid-19 syndrome is already a challenging topic: long-term multiorgan sequelae, although increasingly described, have not yet been systematized. As post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact both the working capacity and the relationship life of surviving patients, we performed a systematic review of the evidence published over the last year and currently available in medical literature search databases (MEDLINE/Pubmed) and searching clinical trial registries, to evaluate the available evidence among workers. From 31 publications that initially matched inclusion criteria, 13 studies have been considered suitable for relevance and age of subjects. A wide range of patients (16%-87%) have post-Covid syndrome; pneumological and neuropsychological symptoms were the most common disorders reported. The most frequent organic sequel found in post-Covid patients was pulmonary fibrosis. The number of symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of the disease, and high serum levels of d-dimer were related to high risk of post-Covid syndrome. In conclusion, post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact the health conditions of surviving patients. Rehabilitation and follow-up in multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs should be considered for working-age patients.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is currently approved for the treatment of COVID-19. The recommendation for using remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 was based on the in vitro and in vivo activity of this drug against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted on a population of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The primary endpoint of this study was the impact of remdesivir-containing therapy on 30-day mortality; the secondary endpoint was the impact of remdesivir-containing therapy on the need for high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNC), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), or mechanical ventilation. The data were analyzed after propensity score matching. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were consecutively enrolled. Out of these, 294 (72.2%) were treated with remdesivir and 113 (27.8%) were not. Overall, 61 patients (14.9%) were treated during hospitalization with HFNC, NIV, or mechanical ventilation, while 30-day mortality was observed in 21 patients (5.2%). Univariate analysis of patients treated with remdesivir or not showed no differences in 30-day mortality (4% vs. 6%, p = 0.411) in the two study groups. Cox regression analysis, after propensity score matching, showed that therapies, including remdesivir-containing therapy, were not statistically associated with 30-day survival or mortality. The Kaplan-Meier curves of 30-day survival in patients treated with remdesivir or not before (p = 0.24) and after (p = 0.88) propensity score matching showed no differences between the two study groups. Finally, patients treated with remdesivir or not showed the same need for HFNC/NIV or mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: This real-life experience of remdesivir use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was not associated with significant increases in rates of survival or reduced use of HFNC/NIV or mechanical ventilation compared with patients treated with other therapies not including remdesivir.

8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 may show no peculiar signs and symptoms that may differentiate it from other infective or non-infective etiologies; thus, early recognition and prompt management are crucial to improve survival. The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to those with other infective or non-infective etiologies. METHODS: We performed a prospective study from March 2020 to February 2021. All patients hospitalized for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were prospectively recruited. All patients were evaluated according to a predefined protocol for diagnosis of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary endpoint was evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated or not with COVID-19 etiology at time of hospitalization in an emergency department. RESULTS: A total of 1036 patients were included in the study: 717 (69%) patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 319 (31%) without COVID-19, hospitalized for other causes. The main causes of hospitalization among non-COVID-19 patients were acute heart failure (44%) and bacterial pneumonia (45.8%). Overall, 30-day mortality was 9% among the COVID-19 group and 35% in the non-COVID-19 group. Multivariate analysis showed variables (fever > 3 days, dry cough, acute dyspnea, lymphocytes < 1000 × 103/µL, and ferritin > 250 ng/mL) independently associated with COVID-19 etiology. A decision tree was elaborated to early detect COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. Finally, Kaplan-Meier curves on 30-day survival in COVID-19 patients during the first wave (March-May 2020, n = 289 patients) and the second wave (October-February 2021, n = 428 patients) showed differences between the two study periods (p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 may show peculiar characteristics at time of hospitalization that could help physicians to distinguish from other infective or non-infective etiologies. Finally, a different 30-day mortality rate was observed during different periods of the pandemic.

9.
Infection ; 50(1): 83-92, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Superinfections in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) are an important and challenging complication, also in COVID-19. However, no definitive data are available about the role of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study including patients with MDR-AB infections admitted to ICU with or without COVID-19, between January 2019 and January 2021. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate risk factor for MDR-AB infections in ICU patients hospitalized for COVID-19 or other etiology. The secondary endpoints were 30-days mortality in all study population and risk factors associated with development of bloodstream infection (BSI). RESULTS: During the study period 32 adults with COVID-19 were enrolled and compared with 115 patients admitted in the same ICU for other reasons. We observed a total of 114 deaths, with a survival rate of 29.3%: 18.8% in COVID-19 and 32.2% in control group. Relative risk for MDR-AB infection in COVID-19 showed that serum lactate levels mmol/l > 2, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI and steroid therapy were observed more frequently in COVID-19 patients. Cox regression analysis showed that serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, BSI, and steroid therapy were associated with 30-days mortality. Finally, patients with COVID-19, white blood cells count > 11,000 mm3, serum lactate levels > 2 mmol/l, infections at time of ICU admission, Acinetobacter baumannii colonization, and steroid therapy were independently associated with development of BSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the impact of BSI on outcome, the role of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and the use of steroids on the risk to develop MDR-AB infections also during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263104

ABSTRACT

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156883

ABSTRACT

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 24-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147336

ABSTRACT

Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Dysbiosis/therapy , Dysbiosis/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4319-4325, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118173

ABSTRACT

Teicoplanin has a potential antiviral activity expressed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was suggested as a complementary option to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In this multicentric, retrospective, observational research the aim was to evaluate the impact of teicoplanin on the course of COVID-19 in critically ill patients. Fifty-five patients with severe COVID-19, hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICUs) and treated with best available therapy were retrospectively analysed. Among them 34 patients were also treated with teicoplanin (Tei-COVID group), while 21 without teicoplanin (control group). Crude in-hospital Day-30 mortality was lower in Tei-COVID group (35.2%) than in control group (42.8%), however not reaching statistical significance (p = .654). No statistically significant differences in length of stay in the ICU were observed between Tei-COVID group and control group (p = .248). On Day 14 from the ICU hospitalization, viral clearance was achieved in 64.7% patients of Tei-COVID group and 57.1% of control group, without statistical difference. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly reduced in Tei-COVID group compared to control group, but not other biochemical parameters. Finally, Gram-positive were the causative pathogens for 25% of BSIs in Tei-COVID group and for 70.6% in controls. No side effects related to teicoplanin use were observed. Despite several limitations require further research, in this study the use of teicoplanin is not associated with a significant improvement in outcomes analysed. The antiviral activity of teicoplanin against SARS-CoV-2, previously documented, is probably more effective at early clinical stages.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024582

ABSTRACT

Prevention of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in healthcare workers (HCWs) facing the current COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge worldwide as HCWs are likely to experience acute and chronic, often unpredictable, occupational stressors leading to PTSS. This review aims to analyze the literature to discover which topics have been focused on and what the latest developments are in managing the occupational risk of PTSS in HCWs during the current pandemic. For the purpose of this review, we searched for publications in MEDLINE/Pubmed using selected keywords. The articles were reviewed and categorized into one or more of the following categories based on their subject matter: risk assessment, risk management, occurrence rates. A total of 16 publications matched our inclusion criteria. The topics discussed were: "Risk Assessment", "Occurrence Rates", and "Risk Management". Young age, low work experience, female gender, heavy workload, working in unsafe settings, and lack of training and social support were found to be predictors of PTSS. This review's findings showed the need for urgent interventions aimed at protecting HCWs from the psychological impact of traumatic events related to the pandemic and leading to PTSS; healthcare policies need to consider preventive and management strategies toward PTSS, and the related psychic sequelae, in HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(12): ofaa563, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on the outcome of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (March 4-April 30, 2020). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was a composite of death or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low-molecular-weight heparin, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest. First, a Cox regression analysis, in which treatments were introduced as time-dependent variables, was performed to evaluate the association of exposures and outcomes. Then, a time-dependent propensity score (PS) was calculated and a PS matching was performed for each treatment variable. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 70 (22.2%) died during hospital stay. The composite endpoint was achieved by 114 (36.2%) patients. Overall, 244 (77.5%) patients received LMWH, 238 (75.5%) received hydroxychloroquine, 201 (63.8%) received proteases inhibitors, 150 (47.6%) received doxycycline, 141 (44.8%) received steroids, 42 (13.3%) received macrolides, 40 (12.7%) received baricitinib, 13 (4.1%) received tocilizumab, and 13 (4.1%) received remdesivir. At multivariate analysis, LMWH was associated with a reduced risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.6; P < .001) and composite endpoint (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95; P = .029). The PS-matched cohort of 55 couples confirmed the same results for both primary and secondary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that LMWH might reduce the risk of in-hospital mortality and severe ARDS in coronavirus disease 2019. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

18.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-933881

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the impact of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods Prospective observational study including consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (4th March-30th April 2020). Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was a composite of death or severe ARDS. LMWH, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, macrolides, antiretrovirals, remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, and steroids were evaluated as treatment exposures of interest. First, a Cox-regression analysis, in which treatments were introduced as time-dependent variables, was performed to evaluate the association of exposures and outcomes. Then, a time-dependent Propensity-score (PS) was calculated and a PS-matching performed for each treatment variable. Results Among 315 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 70 (22.2%) died during hospital stay. The composite endpoint was achieved by 114 (36.2%) patients. Overall, 244 (77.5%) patients received LMWH, 238 (75.5%) hydroxychloroquine, 201 (63.8%) proteases inhibitors, 150 (47.6%) doxycycline, 141 (44.8%) steroids, 42 (13.3%) macrolides, 40 (12.7%) baricitinib, 13 (4.1%) tocilizumab, and 13 (4.1%) remdesivir. At multivariate analysis, LMWH was associated with a reduced risk of 30-day mortality (HR 0.36 [95% CI 0.21-0.6], p<0.001) and composite endpoint (HR 0.61 [95% CI 0.39-0.95], p=0.029). The PS-matched cohort of 55 couples confirmed the same results for both primary and secondary endpoint. Conclusions This study suggests that LMWH might reduce the risk of in-hospital mortality and severe ARDS in Covid-19. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736673

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has inevitably caused those involved in cancer care to change clinical practice in order to minimize the risk of infection while maintaining cancer treatment as a priority. General advice during the pandemic suggests that most patients continue with ongoing therapies or planned surgeries, while follow-up visits may instead be delayed until the resolution of the outbreak. We conducted a literature search using PubMed to identify articles published in English language that reported on care recommendations for cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic from its inception up to 1st June 2020, using the terms "(cancer or tumor) AND (COVID 19)". Articles were selected for relevance and split into five categories: (1) personal recommendations of single or multiple authors, (2) recommendations of single authoritative centers, (3) recommendations of panels of experts or of multiple regional comprehensive centers, (4) recommendations of multicenter cooperative groups, (5) official guidelines or recommendations of health authorities. Of the 97 included studies, 10 were personal recommendations of single or multiple independent authors, 16 were practice recommendations of single authoritative cancer centers, 35 were recommendations provided by panel of experts or of multiple regional comprehensive centers, 19 were cooperative group position papers, and finally, 17 were official guidelines statements. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global emergency, and has rapidly modified our clinical practice. Delaying unnecessary treatment, minimizing toxicity, and identifying care priorities for surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies must be viewed as basic priorities in the COVID-19 era.

20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(11): 1767-1772, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703147

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 by the WHO, has rapidly spread around the world since its first reported case in late December of 2019 from Wuhan, the People's Republic of China. As of mid-April 2020, this virus has affected more than 180 countries and territories, infecting more than 1,650,000 individuals and causing over 100,000 deaths. With approximately 20 million new cases globally per year, cancer affects a substantial portion of the population. Individuals affected by cancer are more susceptible to infections owing to coexisting chronic diseases (cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes), overall poor health status, and systemic immunosuppressive states caused by both cancer and the anticancer treatment. As a consequence, patients with malignancies, especially those with lung cancer who develop coronavirus disease 2019, experience more difficult outcomes. A recent multicenter study carried out by the Hubei Anti-Cancer Association has also documented that patients with lung cancer had an increased risk of death, intensive care unit requirement, risk of presenting severe or critical symptoms, and use of invasive mechanical ventilation. Here, we present two representative cases of patients with lung cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 without respiratory compromise and with atypical and severe skin manifestations-findings that could be influenced by the long-term use of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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