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2.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 34(6): 1386-1394, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Brugada syndrome (BrS) has a dynamic ECG pattern that might be revealed by certain conditions such as fever. We evaluated the incidence and management of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) related to COVID-19 infection and vaccination among BrS patients carriers of an implantable loop recorder (ILR) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and followed by remote monitoring. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective study. Patients were carriers of devices with remote monitoring follow-up. We recorded VAs 6 months before COVID-19 infection or vaccination, during infection, at each vaccination, and up to 6-month post-COVID-19 or 1 month after the last vaccination. In ICD carriers, we documented any device intervention. RESULTS: We included 326 patients, 202 with an ICD and 124 with an ILR. One hundred and nine patients (33.4%) had COVID-19, 55% of whom developed fever. Hospitalization rate due to COVID-19 infection was 2.76%. After infection, we recorded only two ventricular tachycardias (VTs). After the first, second, and third vaccines, the incidence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) was 1.5%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. The incidence of VT was 1% after the second dose. Six-month post-COVID-19 healing or 1 month after the last vaccine, we documented NSVT in 3.4%, VT in 0.5%, and ventricular fibrillation in 0.5% of patients. Overall, one patient received anti-tachycardia pacing and one a shock. ILR carriers had no VAs. No differences were found in VT before and after infection and before and after each vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: From this large multicenter study conducted in BrS patients, followed by remote monitoring, the overall incidence of sustained VAs after COVID-19 infection and vaccination is relatively low.


Subject(s)
Brugada Syndrome , COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Humans , Brugada Syndrome/diagnosis , Brugada Syndrome/epidemiology , Brugada Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Incidence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Registries , Vaccination , Follow-Up Studies
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 47(3): 137-151, 2023.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: currently, individuals at risk of adverse outcomes for COVID-19 can access to vaccination and pharmacological interventions. But, during the first epidemic wave, there were no treatments or therapeutic strategies available to reduce adverse outcomes in patients at risk. OBJECTIVES: to assess the impact of an intervention at 15-month follow-up developed by the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan Area of Milan (ATS Milan) based on telephone triage and consultation by the General Practitioners (GPs) for patient with high-risk for adverse outcomes. DESIGN: intervention on population. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a total of 127,292 patients in the ATS aged ≥70 years and with comorbidities associated with an increased risk of dying from COVID-19 infection were identified. Using a specific information system, patients were assigned to their GPs for telephone triage and consultation. GPs inform them about the risks of the disease, non-pharmacological prevention measures, and precautions in contacts with family members and other persons. No specific clinical intervention was carried out, only an information/training intervention was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: by the end of May 2020, 48.613 patients had been contacted and 78.679 had not been contacted. Hazard Ratios (HRs) of infection hospitalisation and death at 3 and 15 months were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted by confounder. RESULTS: no differences in gender, age class distribution, prevalence of specific diseases, and Charlson Index were found between the two groups (treated such as called patients and not called). Called patients had a higher propensity for influenza and antipneumococcal vaccination and have more comorbidities and greater access to pharmacological therapies. Non-called patients have a greater risk for COVID-19 infection: HR was 3.88 (95%CI 3.48-4.33) at 3 months and 1.28 (95%CI 1.23-1.33) at 15 months; for COVID-19 hospitalization HR was 2.66 (95%CI 2.39-2,95) at 3 months and 1.31 (95%CI 1.25-1.37) at 15 months; for overall mortality HR was 2,52 (95%CI 2.35-2:72) at 3 months and 1.23 (95%CI 1.19-1.27) at 15 months. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study show a reduction in hospitalization and deaths and support, in case of pandemic events, the implementation of new care strategies based on adapted stratification systems in order to protect the population's health. This study presents some limits: it is not randomized; a selection bias is present (called patients were those most in contact with the GPs); the intervention is indication-based (on march 2020, the actual benefit of protection and distancing for high-risk groups was unclear), and the adjustment is not able to fully control for confounding. However, this study points out the importance to develop information systems and improve methods to best protect the health of the population in setting of territorial epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
Transportation Research Procedia ; 69:552-559, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2253626

ABSTRACT

Humanity has faced many pandemics throughout its history with COVID-19 pandemic being the most recent. Each pandemic requires the implementation of a series of restrictions and measures to reform local societies or even society on a global scale. Scientific and technological innovations have ensured the survival of mankind and consequently the establishment of new habits and trends. One of these reforms concerns the transport of goods and in particular urban logistics and last-mile delivery. Despite the increasing use of e-commerce, the average amount of money spent per month and per buyer has decreased;in times of uncertainty, people prefer to postpone big purchases and focus more on everyday products. These purchases have generated an increase in demand for the transport of goods and put significant pressure on the supply chain. For this reason, actions have been developed to improve logistics, in particular last-mile delivery, with the introduction of environmentally friendly and small vehicles, among others. In order to be able to trace the evolution of the combination of the COVID-19 pandemic and logistics spatially and temporally, the manuscript focused as a first step on the analysis of the literature entered in the main databases dedicated to scientific publications, returning some 2,227 indexed articles from 2000 to 2021. The search was conducted using keywords and iterations between them. The results emphasised the need to adapt business activities to the changing situation by anticipating people's needs, creating e-commerce sites capable of accompanying customers in this delicate phase. The results obtained were analysed from a statistical point of view, laying the foundations for future investigative steps in the field of last-mile logistics and the proper planning of loading and unloading spaces for goods in urban areas.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 131: 155-161, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is a scarcity of data on the outcomes and predictors of therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in frail patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective study including consecutive COVID-19 outpatients referred by primary care physicians for mAb treatment. The outcomes evaluated were 60-day mortality, time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance, need for hospitalization, and O2 therapy. RESULTS: Among 1026 COVID-19 patients enrolled, 60.2% received casirivamab/imdevimab and 39.8% sotrivimab. Median age was 63 years, 52.4% were males and median time from positive nasopharyngeal swab to mAbs administration was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). 78.1% were vaccinated. Overall, the 60-day mortality was 2.14%. No differences in outcomes were observed between the two mAbs used. No difference was observed in mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (P = 0.925); although, lower rate of hospitalization (P <0.005), less need for O2 therapy (P <0.0001) and reduced nasopharyngeal swab negativity time (P <0.0001) were observed in vaccinated patients. Early administration of mAbs was associated with lower mortality (P <0.007), whereas corticosteroid use worsened prognosis (P <0.004). The independent predictors associated with higher mortality were older age (P <0.0001), presence of active hematologic malignancies (P <0.0001), renal failure (P <0.041), and need for O2 therapy (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: This study shows similar effectiveness among mAbs used, regardless of vaccination status and identifies patients with COVID-19 in whom mAbs have poor activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Frail Elderly , Prospective Studies , Outpatients , Risk Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(5): 800-814, 2023 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274004

ABSTRACT

Since the first identification in December of 2019 and the fast spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it has represented a dramatic global public health concern. Though affecting mainly the respiratory system, SARS-CoV-2 disease, defined as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may have a systemic involvement leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Experimental evidence about the SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the liver and the increasing of hepatic cytolysis enzymes during infection support the presence of a pathophysiological relationship between liver and SARS-CoV-2. On the other side, patients with chronic liver disease have been demonstrated to have a poor prognosis with COVID-19. In particular, patients with liver cirrhosis appear extremely vulnerable to infection. Moreover, the etiology of liver disease and the vaccination status could affect the COVID-19 outcomes. This review analyzes the impact of the disease stage and the related causes on morbidity and mortality, clinical outcomes during SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the efficacy of vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(3): 517-532, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229044

ABSTRACT

"Despite being one of the best understood cardiac arrhythmias, the clinical meaning of atrial flutter varies according to the specific context, and its optimal treatment may be limited by both the suboptimal response to rate/rhythm control drugs and by the complexity of the underlying substrate. In this article, we present a state-of-the-art overview of mechanisms, prognostic impact, and medical/interventional management options for atrial flutter in several specific patient populations, including heart failure, cardiomyopathies, muscular dystrophies, posttransplant patients, patients with respiratory disorders, athletes, and subjects with preexcitation, aiming to stimulate further research in this challenging field and facilitate appropriate patient care."


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Flutter , Cardiomyopathies , Catheter Ablation , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Humans
8.
International Journal of Tourism Policy ; 12(4):372-391, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2197270

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a typology of European regions according to the type, mix and magnitude of human mobilities attracted over the 2008-2018 period, tourists being one of them, but extending to the related movement of different cohorts of migrants. Regional clusters are then assessed in terms of their social performance in domains such as health, material conditions, housing, and labour. Significant associations between regional types and social trends are interpreted in the light of potential factors affecting these outcomes. Results point to the uneven repercussions of housing unaffordability in the fastest growing destination regions, on the polarisation of living conditions in the European 'star destinations' and on the challenge of precarious labour, especially for migrant workers, in established mature destinations. In a stage of reignition of tourism activity after the COVID-19 crisis, these insights are meant to contribute to the recovery debate, informing about key social issues and vulnerabilities which, in specific regional contexts, could have been amplified by the current crisis.

9.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 10(1)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166620

ABSTRACT

AIM: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on our life, it has revolutionized the practice of cardiology and the organization of hospital and outpatient activities. Thus the aim of our study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A single center retrospective study was carried out evaluating 96 cancer patients treated with anthracyclines and admitted to our Cardio-Oncology unit from June to August 2019 and 60 patients from June to August 2021. The incidence of CTRCD was assessed performing an echocardiogram at the time of the enrollment. We found a significantly higher incidence of CTRCD in the second period compared to first period (13% vs. 2%, p value 0.0058). In addition we found that fewer yearly visits were performed in our Cardio-oncology unit in 2021 compared to 2019 (300 patients/year in 2019 vs. 144 patients/year in the COVID era). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic seems to influence the onset of CTRCD in cancer patients by indirectly reducing hospital access of cancer patients and cardiological checks. In addition our data reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the late diagnosis of cancer, in the reduction of hospital admissions and regular medical checks, in the increase of comorbidities and cardiovascular complications.

10.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 327, 2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Non-Invasive Respiratory Support (NRS) as Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and/or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) has been proven as effective in the management of SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS. However, the most appropriate timing for start NRS is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study including all consecutive patients who developed moderate SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS during hospitalization. Patients were randomly divided into two intervention groups according to ARDS severity (assessed by PaO2/FiO2-P/F) at NRS beginning: group A started CPAP/NIV when P/F was ≤ 200 and group B started CPAP/NIV when P/F was ≤ 150. Eligible patients who did not give their consent to CPAP/NIV until the severe stage of ARDS and started non-invasive treatment when P/F ≤ 100 (group C) was added. The considered outcomes were in-hospital mortality, oro-tracheal intubation (OTI) and days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 146 eligible patients, 29 underwent CPAP/NIV when P/F was ≤ 200 (Group A), 68 when P/F was ≤ 150 (Group B) and 31 patients agreed to non-invasive treatment only when P/F was ≤ 100 (Group C). Starting NRS at P/F level between 151 and 200 did not results in significant differences in the outcomes as compared to treatment starting with P/F ranging 101-150. Conversely, patients undergone CPAP/NIV in a moderate stage (P/F 101-200) had a significantly lower in-hospital mortality rate (13.4 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.044) and hospitalization length (14 vs. 15 days, p = 0.038) than those in the severe stage (P/F ≤ 100). Age and need for continuous ventilation were independent predictors of CPAP/NIV failure. CONCLUSIONS: Starting CPAP/NIV in patients with SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS in moderate stage (100 > P/F ≤ 200) is associated to a reduction of both in-hospital mortality and hospitalization length compared to the severe stage (P/F ≤ 100). Starting CPAP/NIV with a P/F > 150 does not appear to be of clinical utility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 904841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163149

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic confined most of the population to homes worldwide, and then, a lot of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) centers moved to telemedicine services to continue to assist both patients with ALS and their caregivers. This pilot, randomized, controlled study aimed to explore the potential role of psychological support interventions for family caregivers of patients with ALS through resilience-oriented sessions of group therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 12 caregivers agreed to be remotely monitored by our center since March 2020 and underwent scales for global burden (i.e., Caregiver Burden Inventory, CBI), resilience (i.e., Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC), and perceived stress (i.e., Perceived Stress Scale, PSS) at two-time points (i.e., at pre-treatment assessment and after 9 months or at post-treatment assessment). They were randomized into two groups: the former group underwent resilience-oriented sessions of group therapy two times a month for 3 months, while the latter one was only remotely monitored. No significant differences were found in CBI, CD-RISC, and PSS during the 9-month observation period in the treated group compared with the control group, suggesting a trend toward stability of caregiver burden together with resilience and perceived stress scores in all the subjects monitored. The lack of differences in caregivers' burden, resilience, and perceived stress scores by comparing the two groups monitored during 9 months could be due to the co-occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic with the stressful events related to caring for patients with ALS that might have hindered the detection of significant benefits from short-lasting psychological support.

12.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(1): 136-142, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159300

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic an important tool for patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the computed tomography (CT) scan, but not always available in some settings The aim was to find a cut-off that can predict worsening in patients with COVID-19 assessed with a computed tomography (CT) scan and to find laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters that may correlate with a higher CT score. METHODS: We performed a multi-center, observational, retrospective study involving seventeen COVID-19 Units in southern Italy, including all 321 adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who underwent at admission a CT evaluated using Pan score. RESULTS: Considering the clinical outcome and Pan score, the best cut-off point to discriminate a severe outcome was 12.5. High lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum value and low PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) resulted independently associated with a high CT score. The Area Under Curve (AUC) analysis showed that the best cut-off point for LDH was 367.5 U/L and for P/F 164.5. Moreover, the patients with LDH> 367.5 U/L and P/F < 164.5 showed more frequently a severe CT score than those with LDH< 367.5 U/L and P/F> 164.5, 83.4%, vs 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A direct correlation was observed between CT score value and outcome of COVID-19, such as CT score and high LDH levels and low P/F ratio at admission. Clinical or laboratory tools that predict the outcome at admission to hospital are useful to avoiding the overload of hospital facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Infez Med ; 30(4): 539-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164888

ABSTRACT

The presence of co-morbidities is associated with a poor outcome in patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in order to assess its impact on mortality and severity of disease. We performed a multicenter, observational, 1:2 matched case-control study involving seventeen COVID-19 Units in southern Italy. All the adults hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and with pre-existing CKD were included (Cases). For each Case, two patients without CKD pair matched for gender, age (+5 years), and number of co-morbidities (excluding CKD) were enrolled (Controls). Of the 2,005 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection followed during the study period, 146 patients with CKD and 292 patients without were enrolled in the case and control groups, respectively. Between the Case and Control groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of moderate (17.1% vs 17.8%, p=0.27) or severe (18.8% and 13.7%, p=0.27) clinical presentation of COVID-19 or deaths (20.9% vs 28.1%, p=0.27). In the Case group, the patients dead during hospitalization were statistically higher in the 89 patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to 45 patients with stages 1-3 CKD (30.3% vs 13.3%, p=0.03). Our data suggests that only CKD stage 4-5 on admission was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143153

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To characterize patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the three waves in Southern Italy. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational cohort study involving seventeen COVID-19 Units in Campania, southern Italy: All adult (≥18 years) patients, hospitalized with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection from 28 February 2020 to 31 May 2021, were enrolled. RESULTS: Two thousand and fifteen COVID-19 hospitalized patients were enrolled; 392 (19%) in the first wave, 917 (45%) in the second and 706 (35%) in the third wave. Patients showed a less severe clinical outcome in the first wave than in the second and third waves (73%, 65% and 72%, respectively; p = 0.003), but hospitalization expressed in days was longer in the first wave [Median (Q1-Q3): 17 (13-25) v.s. 14 (9-21) and 14 (9-19), respectively, p = 0.001)] and also mortality during hospitalization was higher in the first wave than in the second and third waves: 16.6% v.s. 11.3% and 6.5%, respectively (p = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that older age [OR: 1.069, CI (1046-1092); p = 0.001], a worse Charlson comorbidity index [OR: 1042, CI (1233-1594; p = 0.0001] and enrolment during the first-wave [OR: 1.917, CI (1.054-3.485; p = 0.033] were predictors of mortality in hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: Improved organization of the healthcare facilities and the increase in knowledge of clinical and therapeutic management have contributed to a trend in the reduction in mortality during the three waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Health Facilities , Italy/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies
15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(5-6): In press, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a generalised mortality excess was recorded in 2020. However, the mortality for COVID-19 cannot fully explain the observed excesses. The analysis of cause-specific mortality could contribute to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and to the monitoring mortality trends. OBJECTIVES: to describe the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in overall and cause-specific mortality in population residing in the Agency for Health Protection (ATS) of Milan. Descriptive analysis of cause-specific mortality within thirty days of SARS-COV-2 infection. DESIGN: descriptive analysis of overall and cause-specific mortality in the ATS of Milan area in 2020 and comparison with a reference period (2015-2019). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: overall deaths in ATS of Milan in 2020 were collected, using the Local Registry of Causes of Death, and were classified according to the ICD-10 codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: total and weekly overall and cause-specific mortality, by age. RESULTS:  in 2020, 44,757 deaths for all causes were observed in people residing in the ATS of Milan with percentage change of 35%. The leading cause of death in 2020 were cardiovascular disease and neoplasm; COVID-19 infection was the third cause. An excess of mortality was observed for most of all causes of deaths. Starting from 40-49-year age group, an increase of mortality was observed; the largest increase was observed in the group 70+ years. The largest increases were observed for endocrine, respiratory, and hypertensive diseases. On the contrary, for neoplasm, infectious (not COVID-19) diseases, traffic-related mortality, and cerebrovascular disease and ictus, a decrease of mortality was observed. The greater mortality increase was observed during the first pandemic wave. The leading cause of death after positive swab was COVID-19 infection, with little variation with age class. Other frequent causes of death were respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: the study showed a generalised increase for most causes of death; observed mortality trends may indicate delay in access to health care system, in diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Cause of Death , SARS-CoV-2 , Italy/epidemiology , Mortality
16.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 240-249, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: during 2020, Italy was one of the first nation hit by SARS-CoV-2, but it was not the hardest-hit country in terms of deaths. In absence of the death certificate, the burden of COVID-19 on mortality is usually calculated from overall deaths or from deaths of patients tested positive for COVID-19. However, these measures do not express the real burden of the disease on the population. OBJECTIVES: identify deaths due to or involving COVID-19 in absence of the death certificates. DESIGN: deaths for all causes, cause-specific deaths, COVID-19 hospitalization and COVID-19 confirmed cases between 01.01.2020 and 31.12.2021 observed in subjects residing in the territory of the ATS of Milan. Potential deaths due to or involving COVID-19 as those occurring in an optimal time period between the date of death and the date of positive swab and/or COVID-19 hospitalization, were identified. Optimal time period was defined maximizing sensitivity and specificity, comparing potential COVID-19 deaths with 2020 cause-specific mortality as gold standard, stratifying results by time of deaths, age, and number of comorbidities. Then, this method was further validated using a time-series approach to estimate the excess mortality during the COVID-19 outbreak in comparison with the pre-outbreak period 2015-2019. Accuracy of predictions was evaluated with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 78,202 deaths for all causes, of which 8,815 due to or involving COVID-19 as classified by the Milan Register of Death Causes for 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: from the beginning of the epidemic, 30% (23,495) died in the first semester of 2020, 26% (19,988) in the second semester of 2020, 23% (18,189) in the first semester of 2021, and 21% (16,530) in the second semester of 2021. COVID-19 hospitalizations were 13.826 (17%), while confirmed COVID-19 cases were 17,548 (22%). The optimal time intervals capable to identify a potential death due to or involving COVID-19 were 0-61 between the date of death and the date of positive swab and 0-11 between the date of death and the date of COVID-19 hospitalization, with an overall sensitivity of 90%, a specificity of 95%, and a RMSE of 3.6. Comparing the method proposed with the time-series approach, a RMSE in 2021 of 15.8 was found. Results showed different optimal time intervals for 2021 vs 2020 and by years of age and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: this study found that deaths due to or involving COVID-19 could be sensitively identified from the date of positive swab and/or COVID-19 hospitalization. This method can be used for public health interventions which provided so far measures in terms of total deaths instead of real numbers of COVID-19 death, in particular those involving the effective reproduction number usually calculated from overall mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Death Certificates , Cause of Death , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271404, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In February 2021, the spread of a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 in the Lombardy Region, Italy caused concerns about school-aged children as a source of contagion, leading local authorities to adopt an extraordinary school closure measure. This generated a debate about the usefulness of such an intervention in light of the trade-off between its related benefits and costs (e.g. delays in educational attainment, impact on children and families' psycho-physical well-being). This article analyses the epidemiological impact of the school closure intervention in the Milan metropolitan area. METHODS: Data from the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan City of Milan allowed analysing the trend of contagion in different age classes before and after the intervention, adopting an interrupted times series design, providing a quasi-experimental counterfactual scenario. Segmented Poisson regression models of daily incident cases were performed separately for the 3-11-year-old, the 12-19-year-old, and the 20+-year-old age groups, examining the change in the contagion curves after the intervention, adjusting for time-varying confounders. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression were used to assess the equality of survival curves in the three age groups before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Net of time-varying confounders, the intervention produced a daily reduction of the risk of contagion by 4% in those aged 3-11 and 12-19 (IRR = 0·96) and by 3% in those aged 20 or more (IRR = 0·97). More importantly, there were differences in the temporal order of contagion decrease between the age groups, with the epidemic curve lowering first in the school-aged children directly affected by the intervention, and only subsequently in the adult population, which presumably indirectly benefitted from the reduction of contagion among children. CONCLUSION: Though it was not possible to completely discern the effect of school closures from concurrent policy measures, a substantial decrease in the contagion curves was clearly detected after the intervention. The extent to which the slowdown of infections counterbalanced the social costs of the policy remains unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Young Adult
18.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918931

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic confined most of the population to homes worldwide, and then, a lot of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) centers moved to telemedicine services to continue to assist both patients with ALS and their caregivers. This pilot, randomized, controlled study aimed to explore the potential role of psychological support interventions for family caregivers of patients with ALS through resilience-oriented sessions of group therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 12 caregivers agreed to be remotely monitored by our center since March 2020 and underwent scales for global burden (i.e., Caregiver Burden Inventory, CBI), resilience (i.e., Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC), and perceived stress (i.e., Perceived Stress Scale, PSS) at two-time points (i.e., at pre-treatment assessment and after 9 months or at post-treatment assessment). They were randomized into two groups: the former group underwent resilience-oriented sessions of group therapy two times a month for 3 months, while the latter one was only remotely monitored. No significant differences were found in CBI, CD-RISC, and PSS during the 9-month observation period in the treated group compared with the control group, suggesting a trend toward stability of caregiver burden together with resilience and perceived stress scores in all the subjects monitored. The lack of differences in caregivers’ burden, resilience, and perceived stress scores by comparing the two groups monitored during 9 months could be due to the co-occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic with the stressful events related to caring for patients with ALS that might have hindered the detection of significant benefits from short-lasting psychological support.

19.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 562-565, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of an innovative model of HCV micro-elimination in a hospital setting in an area of high HCV prevalence. PATIENTS AND METODS: Between January and December 2019, a prospective, interventional study for a program of HCV case-finding and linkage-to-care was performed in S. Anna and S. Sebastiano hospital of Caserta, in Campania, a region in southern Italy. All adult patients who were admitted to the Caserta hospital in the study period and resulted positive for anti-HCV were included in the study. The outcomes evaluated were the number of subjects resulting HCV-RNA-positive, those linked-to-care and treated with a DAA and the subjects whose anti-HCV-status was unknown. RESULTS: In the study period, 14,396 subjects, admitted to the hospital for different reasons, were tested for anti-HCV: 529 (3.7%) subjects resulted positive for anti-HCV. Of the 529 anti-HCV-positive subjects, 10 died during hospitalization and 243 were already treated with a DAA. The remaining 276 subjects were contacted and agreed to be evaluated. Of these 276 subjects, 68 patients resulted HCV- RNA-negative and 194 HCV-RNA-positive and 180 of these were treated with a DAA according to the international guidelines. DISCUSSION: A simple, rapid, inexpensive model of HCV micro-elimination in the hospital setting allowed us to find anti-HCV-positive subjects with unknown anti-HCV status or not linked to a clinical center.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA/therapeutic use
20.
Pathogens ; 11(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given the impact of COVID-19 on the world healthcare system, and the efforts of the healthcare community to find prognostic factors for hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic impact of transaminases and bilirubin levels at admission to hospital on disease progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using the CoviCamp database, we performed a multicenter, observational, retrospective study involving 17 COVID-19 Units in southern Italy. We included all adult patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection with at least one determination at hospital admission of aminotransaminases and/or total bilirubin. RESULTS: Of the 2054 patients included in the CoviCamp database, 1641 were included in our study; 789 patients (48%) were considered to have mild COVID-19, 347 (21%) moderate COVID-19, 354 (22%) severe COVID-19, and 151 patients (9%) died during hospitalization. Older age (odds ratio (OR): 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.03), higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.088; 95%CI 1.005-1.18), presence of dementia (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.30-3.73), higher serum AST (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.0001-1.004), and total bilirubin (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.002-1.19) values were associated with a more severe clinical outcome. Instead, the 151 patients who died during hospitalization showed a higher serum bilirubin value at admission (OR 1.1165; 95% CI: 1.017-1.335); the same did not apply for AST. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 with higher levels of AST and bilirubin had an increased risk of disease progression.

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