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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consultations with specialists are essential for safe and high-quality care for all patients. Cardiology consultations, due to a progressive increase in cardiology comorbidities, are becoming more common in hospitals prior to any type of treatment. The appropriateness and correctness of the request, the waiting time for delivery and the duration of the visit are just a few of the elements that can affect the quality of the process. METHODS: In this work, a Lean approach and Telemedicine are used to optimize the cardiology consultancy process provided by the Cardiology Unit of "Antonio Cardarelli" Hospital of Naples (Italy), the largest hospital in the southern Italy. RESULTS: The application of corrective actions, with the introduction of portable devices and telemedicine, led to a reduction in the percentage of waiting for counseling from 29.6% to 18.3% and an increase in the number of patients treated. CONCLUSIONS: The peculiarity of the study is to apply an innovative methodology such as Lean Thinking in optimizing the cardiology consultancy process, currently little studied in literature, with benefits for both patients and medical staff.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Telemedicine , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Referral and Consultation
2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 661-674, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804668

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with thoracic malignancies are at increased risk for mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and a large number of intertwined prognostic variables have been identified so far. METHODS: Capitalizing data from the Thoracic Cancers International COVID-19 Collaboration (TERAVOLT) registry, a global study created with the aim of describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with thoracic malignancies, we used a clustering approach, a fast-backward step-down selection procedure, and a tree-based model to screen and optimize a broad panel of demographics and clinical COVID-19 and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: As of April 15, 2021, a total of 1491 consecutive eligible patients from 18 countries were included in the analysis. With a mean observation period of 42 days, 361 events were reported with an all-cause case fatality rate of 24.2%. The clustering procedure screened 73 covariates in 13 clusters. A further multivariable logistic regression for the association between clusters and death was performed, resulting in five clusters significantly associated with the outcome. The fast-backward step-down selection procedure then identified the following seven major determinants of death: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) (OR = 2.47, 1.87-3.26), neutrophil count (OR = 2.46, 1.76-3.44), serum procalcitonin (OR = 2.37, 1.64-3.43), development of pneumonia (OR = 1.95, 1.48-2.58), C-reactive protein (OR = 1.90, 1.43-2.51), tumor stage at COVID-19 diagnosis (OR = 1.97, 1.46-2.66), and age (OR = 1.71, 1.29-2.26). The receiver operating characteristic analysis for death of the selected model confirmed its diagnostic ability (area under the receiver operating curve = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.81). The nomogram was able to classify the COVID-19 mortality in an interval ranging from 8% to 90%, and the tree-based model recognized ECOG-PS, neutrophil count, and c-reactive protein as the major determinants of prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: From 73 variables analyzed, seven major determinants of death have been identified. Poor ECOG-PS was found to have the strongest association with poor outcome from COVID-19. With our analysis, we provide clinicians with a definitive prognostication system to help determine the risk of mortality for patients with thoracic malignancies and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Thoracic Neoplasms , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracic Neoplasms/diagnosis
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319007

ABSTRACT

A model of interacting agents, following plausible behavioral rules into a world where the Covid-19 epidemic is affecting the actions of everyone. The model works with (i) infected agents categorized as symptomatic or asymptomatic and (ii) the places of contagion specified in a detailed way. The infection transmission is related to three factors: the characteristics of both the infected person and the susceptible one, plus those of the space in which contact occurs. The model includes the structural data of Piedmont, an Italian region, but we can easily calibrate it for other areas. The micro-based structure of the model allows factual, counterfactual, and conditional simulations to investigate both the spontaneous or controlled development of the epidemic. The model is generative of complex epidemic dynamics emerging from the consequences of agents' actions and interactions, with high variability in outcomes and stunning realistic reproduction of the successive contagion waves in the reference region. There is also an inverse generative side of the model, coming from the idea of using genetic algorithms to construct a meta-agent to optimize the vaccine distribution. This agent takes into account groups' characteristics -- by age, fragility, work conditions -- to minimize the number of symptomatic people.

4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103455, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several concerns exist on the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects due to their immunomodulating disease modifying therapies (DMTs). Here we report a comparison of the humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA coronavirus (COVID)-19 vaccine and the immunological phenotype in a cohort of 125 MS subjects undergoing different DMTs, with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We collected serum and blood samples at the first day of vaccine (T0) and 21 days after the second vaccine dose (T1) from 125 MS subjects, undergoing eight different DMTs. Sera were tested using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG assay for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The anti-spike IgG titres from MS subjects were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Percentage and absolute number of B and T lymphocytes were evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis in the same study cohort. RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in HC (n = 24, median 1089 (IQR 652.5-1625) U/mL), we observed an increased secretion of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in interferon-beta 1a (IFN)-treated MS subjects (n = 22, median 1916 (IQR 1024-2879) U/mL) and an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing cladribine (CLAD) (n = 10, median 396.9 (IQR 37.52-790.9) U/mL), fingolimod (FTY) (n = 19, median 7.9 (IQR 4.8-147.6) U/mL) and ocrelizumab (OCRE) (n = 15, median 0.67 (IQR 0.4-5.9) U/mL) treatment. Moreover, analysis of geometric mean titre ratio (GMTR) between different DMT's groups of MS subjects revealed that, when compared with IFN-treated MS subjects, intrinsic antibody production was impaired in teriflunomide (TERI)-, natalizumab (NAT)-, CLAD-, FTY- and OCRE-, while preserved in DMF- and GA-treated MS subjects. CONCLUSION: Humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA-vaccine was increased in IFN-treated MS subjects while clearly blunted in those under CLAD, FTY and OCRE treatment. This suggests that the DMTs could have a key role in the protection from SARS-CoV-2 related disease and complication in MS subjects, underlying a novel aspect that should be considered in the selection of the most appropriate therapy under COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444237

ABSTRACT

Major adverse cardiac events, defined as death or myocardial infarction, are common causes of perioperative mortality and major morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Reduction of perioperative cardiovascular risk in relation to non-cardiac surgery requires a stepwise patient evaluation that integrates clinical risk factors, functional status and the estimated stress of the planned surgical procedure. Major guidelines on preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment recommend to establish, firstly, the risk of surgery per se (low, moderate, high) and the related timing (elective vs. urgent/emergent), evaluate the presence of unstable cardiac conditions or a recent coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting), assess the functional capacity of the patient (usually expressed in metabolic equivalents), determine the value of non-invasive and/or invasive cardiovascular testing and then combine these data in estimating perioperative risk for major cardiac adverse events using validated scores (Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)). This stepwise approach has the potential to guide clinicians in determining which patients could benefit from cardiovascular therapy and/or coronary artery revascularization before non-cardiac surgery towards decreasing the incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Finally, it should be highlighted that there is a need to implement specific strategies in the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19 infection during the preoperative risk assessment process.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403845

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in urine during a severe COVID-19 infection may be the expression of the worsening disease evolution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if the COVID-19 disease severity is related to the viral presence in urine samples. We evaluated the clinical evolution in acute COVID-19 patients admitted in the sub-intensive care and intensive care units between 28 of December 2020 and 15th of February 2021 and being positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the respiratory tract, including repeated endotracheal aspirates (ETA), sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and urine. We found that those subjects with SARS-COV-2 in the urine at admittance (8 out of 60 eligible patients) had a more severe disease than those with negative SARS-CoV-2 in urine. Further, they showed an increase in fibrinogen and (C-reactive Protein) CRP serum levels, requiring mechanic ventilation. Of those with positive SARS-CoV-2 in the urine, 50% died. According to our preliminary results, it seems that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the urine characterizes patients with a more severe disease and is also related to a higher death rate.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334980

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 in patients who need intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a mortality rate ranging from 10 to 40-45%, with an increase in morbidity and mortality in presence of sepsis. We hypothesized that IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin G may support the sepsis-related phase improving patient outcome. We conducted a retrospective case-control study on 47 consecutive patients admitted to our ICU. At the time of admission, patients received anticoagulants (heparin sodium) together with the standard supportive treatment. We decided to add IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin G to the standard therapy. Patients receiving IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin G were compared with patients with similar baseline characteristics and treatment, receiving only standard therapy. The mortality resulted significantly higher in patients treated with standard therapy only (56.5 vs. 37.5%, p < 0.01) and, at day 7, the probability of dying was 3 times higher in this group. Variable life adjustment display (VLAD) was 2.4 and -2.2 (in terms of lives saved in relation with those expected and derived from Simplified Acute Physiology Score II) in the treated and not treated group, respectively. The treatment based on IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin G infusion seems to give an advantage on survival in SARS-CoV-2 severe infection.

9.
Acta Radiol Open ; 10(7): 20584601211028149, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334729

ABSTRACT

Hemothorax (HT) and pulmonary hematoma represent rare complications of anticoagulant therapy. We present a rare case of a 53-year-old man with COVID-19 pneumonia who showed, in a follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan 13 days after hospitalization, a left HT and a small hyperdense area in a subpleural location and compatible with a small subpleural hematoma. This patient was being treated with a subcutaneous administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (100UI/kg/BID). No vascular malformations were visualized on the CT pulmonary angiography. Herein, we report the first case of both a spontaneous HT and a lung subpleural hematoma in a COVID-19 patient, probably caused by anticoagulant therapy.

10.
Audiol Res ; 11(3): 313-326, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of otoneurological involvement of SARS-CoV-2, such as tinnitus and balance disorders and smell and taste disorders, but HL in COVID-19 patients has still been marginally studied. Investigating the role of SARS-CoV-2 as an aetiological factor of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) may offer the opportunity to address treatment strategies to maximize clinical recovery and avoid side effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this purpose, we will present case studies of five patients who experienced SSNHL during COVID-19. Patients were selected from COVID-19 positive adult subjects with mild clinical presentation, admitted to the outpatient Ear Nose and Throat Department of Cardarelli Hospital due to the onset of SSNHL during the infection. All underwent a complete audio-vestibular investigation before and after SSNHL treatment protocol. Each patient is described with a detailed analysis. CONCLUSIONS: SSNHL could be an occasional symptom of COVID-19, even in mild manifestations of the disease. Our experience leads us to underline the value of promptly recognizing and addressing this and other uncommon symptoms, giving patients the opportunity to receive early treatment.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264428

ABSTRACT

To identify host genetic determinants involved in humoral immunity and associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19, we analyzed 500 SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects from Southern Italy. We examined the coding sequences of 10 common variable immunodeficiency-associated genes obtained by the whole-exome sequencing of 121 hospitalized patients. These 10 genes showed significant enrichment in predicted pathogenic point mutations in severe patients compared with the non-severe ones. Moreover, in the TNFRSF13C gene, the minor allele of the p.His159Tyr variant, which is known to increase NF-kB activation and B-cell production, was significantly more frequent in the 38 severe cases compared to both the 83 non-severe patients and the 375 asymptomatic subjects further genotyped. This finding identified a potential genetic risk factor of severe COVID-19 that not only may serve to unravel the mechanisms underlying the disease severity but, also, may contribute to build the rationale for individualized management based on B-cell therapy.


Subject(s)
B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244036

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found locus 3p21.31 associated with severe COVID-19. CCR5 resides at the same locus and, given its known biological role in other infection diseases, we investigated if common noncoding and rare coding variants, affecting CCR5, can predispose to severe COVID-19. We combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met the suggestive significance level (P ≤ 1 × 10-5) at the 3p21.31 locus in public GWAS datasets (6406 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 902,088 controls) with gene expression data from 208 lung tissues, Hi-C, and Chip-seq data. Through whole exome sequencing (WES), we explored rare coding variants in 147 severe COVID-19 patients. We identified three SNPs (rs9845542, rs12639314, and rs35951367) associated with severe COVID-19 whose risk alleles correlated with low CCR5 expression in lung tissues. The rs35951367 resided in a CTFC binding site that interacts with CCR5 gene in lung tissues and was confirmed to be associated with severe COVID-19 in two independent datasets. We also identified a rare coding variant (rs34418657) associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Our results suggest a biological role of CCR5 in the progression of COVID-19 as common and rare genetic variants can increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 by affecting the functions of CCR5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Alleles , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Cohort Studies , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Exome Sequencing
13.
Minerva Med ; 112(3): 329-337, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has high mortality rate mainly stemming from acute respiratory distress leading to respiratory failure (ARF). Aim of the study was to evaluate the management of severe ARF due to COVID-19 pneumonia using noninvasive ventilatory support (NIVS), studying safety and effectiveness of NIVS. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicenter study. Primary outcomes were NIVS failure with intubation rate and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were hospital stay and factors related to NIVS failure and mortality. These outcomes were compared with patients intubated and admitted to ICU. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-two patients were hospitalized because of severe respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 ratio <250). One hundred thirty-eight patients were admitted to Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) for a NIVS trial. One hundred patients were treated successfully with NIVS (74.5%); 38 failed NIVS trial (27.5%). In-hospital mortality was 23.18% in RICU group and 30.55% in ICU group. Patients with NIVS failure were older, had a lower number of lymphocytes, a higher IL-6, lower PaO2, PaC O2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate at admission and lower PaO2, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and higher RR after 1-6 hours. Multivariate analysis identified higher age, C-reactive protein as well as RR after 1-6 hours and PaO2/FiO2 ratio after 1-6 hours as an independent predictor mortality. CONCLUSIONS: NIVS is a safe and effective strategy in the treatment of severe ARF due to COVID-19 related pneumonia, that reduces mortality and length of hospital stay in the carefully selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acute Disease , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Heart Rate , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
15.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097576

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is both the most common type of lower respiratory tract infection and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 raised an extremely serious concern, because its most frequent clinical presentation was pneumonia. Features such as sex play an active role in the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate differences between sexes concerning COVID-19-related pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicentre study that enrolled 340 consecutive adult patients admitted to hospital for COVID-19-related pneumonia. Of these patients, 219 were males (64.4%) and 121, females (35.6%). Primary endpoints were differences between both sexes as per clinical features, laboratory and radiologic results, and inhospital and 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included differences between both sexes and factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Males admitted to the COVID-19 Unit were older than females (74.5 ± 15.7 vs. 64.5 ± 11.9). Cardiovascular disorders were more frequent in males (19.17% vs 13.25%), whereas obesity was more common in females (54.5% vs 37.45%). In-hospital and 30-day mortality were higher in males than in females (23.3% vs 15.7%; 24.6% vs 19.8%, respectively). No differences were observed in hospital stay; however, males had a longer ICU stay when compared with females (11.04±5.4 vs 7.05±3.4). Variables associated with a higher mortality rate included older age, a lower number of lymphocytes upon admission and higher levels of ferritin and troponin upon admission. CONCLUSIONS: Males had significantly higher mortality and longer ICU stay than females. More comorbidities in males than in females could explain the difference in mortality rates. The protective role of genetic factors can partially explain the better outcomes observed in female patients with COVID-19.

16.
Minerva Med ; 112(3): 329-337, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has high mortality rate mainly stemming from acute respiratory distress leading to respiratory failure (ARF). Aim of the study was to evaluate the management of severe ARF due to COVID-19 pneumonia using noninvasive ventilatory support (NIVS), studying safety and effectiveness of NIVS. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicenter study. Primary outcomes were NIVS failure with intubation rate and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were hospital stay and factors related to NIVS failure and mortality. These outcomes were compared with patients intubated and admitted to ICU. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-two patients were hospitalized because of severe respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 ratio <250). One hundred thirty-eight patients were admitted to Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) for a NIVS trial. One hundred patients were treated successfully with NIVS (74.5%); 38 failed NIVS trial (27.5%). In-hospital mortality was 23.18% in RICU group and 30.55% in ICU group. Patients with NIVS failure were older, had a lower number of lymphocytes, a higher IL-6, lower PaO2, PaC O2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate at admission and lower PaO2, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and higher RR after 1-6 hours. Multivariate analysis identified higher age, C-reactive protein as well as RR after 1-6 hours and PaO2/FiO2 ratio after 1-6 hours as an independent predictor mortality. CONCLUSIONS: NIVS is a safe and effective strategy in the treatment of severe ARF due to COVID-19 related pneumonia, that reduces mortality and length of hospital stay in the carefully selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acute Disease , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Heart Rate , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
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