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EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. METHODS: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). FINDINGS: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. INTERPRETATION: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1843-1850, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In polymorbid patients with bronchopulmonary infection, malnutrition is an independent risk factor for mortality. There is a lack of interventional data investigating whether providing nutritional support during the hospital stay in patients at risk for malnutrition presenting with lower respiratory tract infection lowers mortality. METHODS: For this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial (EFFORT), we analyzed data of a subgroup of patients with confirmed lower respiratory tract infection from an initial cohort of 2028 patients. Patients at nutritional risk (Nutritional Risk Screening [NRS] score ≥3 points) were randomized to receive protocol-guided individualized nutritional support to reach protein and energy goals (intervention group) or standard hospital food (control group). The primary endpoint of this analysis was all-cause 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 378 of 2028 EFFORT patients (mean age 74.4 years, 24% with COPD) into this analysis. Compared to usual care hospital nutrition, individualized nutritional support to reach caloric and protein goals showed a similar beneficial effect of on the risk of mortality in the subgroup of respiratory tract infection patients as compared to the main EFFORT trial (odds ratio 0.47 [95%CI 0.17 to 1.27, p = 0.136] vs 0.65 [95%CI 0.47 to 0.91, p = 0.011]) with no evidence of a subgroup effect (p for interaction 0.859). Effects were also similar among different subgroups based on etiology and type of respiratory tract infection and for other secondary endpoints. CONCLUSION: This subgroup analysis from a large nutrition support trial suggests that patients at nutritional risk as assessed by NRS 2002 presenting with bronchopulmonary infection to the hospital likely have a mortality benefit from individualized inhospital nutritional support. The small sample size and limited statistical power calls for larger nutritional studies focusing on this highly vulnerable patient population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02517476.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition/diet therapy , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Support/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Aged , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Switzerland/epidemiology
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