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1.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939915

ABSTRACT

There is now sufficient evidence to support that vitamin D deficiency may predispose to SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase COVID-19 severity and mortality. It has been suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation may be used prophylactically as an affordable and safe strategy that could be added to the existing COVID-19 standard treatment. This multicenter, single-blinded, prospective randomized pilot clinical trial aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of 10,000 IU/day in comparison with 2000 IU/day of cholecalciferol supplementation for 14 days to reduce the duration and severity of COVID-19 in 85 hospitalized individuals. The median age of the participants was 65 years (Interquartile range (IQR): 53–74), most of them (71%) were men and the mean baseline of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in serum was 15 ng/ml (standard deviation (SD):6). After 14 days of supplementation, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly increased in the group who received 10,000IU/day (p < 0.0001) (n = 44) in comparison with the 2,000IU/day group (n = 41), especially in overweight and obese participants, and the higher dose was well tolerated. A fraction of the individuals in our cohort (10/85) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The median length of hospital stay in these patients with ARDS was significantly different in the participants assigned to the 10,000IU/day group (n = 4;7 days;IQR: 4–13) and the 2,000IU/day group (n = 6;27 days;IQR: 12–45) (p = 0.04). Moreover, the inspired oxygen fraction was reduced 7.6-fold in the high dose group (p = 0.049). In terms of blood parameters, we did not identify overall significant improvements, although the platelet count showed a modest but significant difference in those patients who were supplemented with the higher dose (p = 0.0492). In conclusion, the administration of 10,000IU/day of vitamin D3 for 14 days in association with the standard clinical care during hospitalization for COVID-19 was safe, tolerable, and beneficial, thereby helping to improve the prognosis during the recovery process.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 112965, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872933

ABSTRACT

Main cause of severe illness and death in COVID-19 patients appears to be an excessive but ineffectual inflammatory immune response that may cause severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Vitamin D may favour an anti-inflammatory environment and improve cytotoxic response against some infectious diseases. A multicenter, single-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial was approved in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) of 14.8 ng/ml (SD: 6.18) to test antiviral efficacy, tolerance and safety of 10,000 IU/day of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for 14 days, in comparison with 2000 IU/day. After supplementation, mean serum 25(OH)D levels increased to 19 ng/ml on average in 2000 IU/day versus 29 ng/ml in 10,000 IU/day group (p < 0.0001). Although levels of inflammatory cytokines were not modified by treatment with 10,000 IU/day, there was an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and higher levels of CD4+ T cells, with predominance of T central memory subpopulation. Cytotoxic response against pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 infected cells was increased more than 4-fold in patients who received 10,000 IU/day. Moreover, levels of IFNγ were significantly higher in this group. Beneficial effect of supplementation with 10,000 IU/day was also observed in participants who developed ARDS and stayed at the hospital for 8.0 days, whereas those who received 2000 IU/day stayed for 29.2 days (p = 0.0381). Administration of high doses of vitamin D3 as adjuvant of the standard care treatment during hospitalization for COVID-19 may improve the inflammatory environment and cytotoxic response against pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, shortening the hospital stay and, possibly, improving the prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Respiration ; 101(7): 658-665, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serological biomarkers at the acute phase of infection at hospital admission with the development of long-term post-COVID fatigue and dyspnea. METHODS: A cohort study including patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in one urban hospital of Madrid (Spain) during the first wave of the outbreak (from March 20 to June 30, 2020) was conducted. Hospitalization data, clinical data, and eleven serological biomarkers were systematically collected at hospital admission. Patients were scheduled for an individual telephone interview after hospital discharge for collecting data about the presence of post-COVID fatigue and dyspnea. RESULTS: A total of 412 patients (age: 62 years, standard deviation: 15 years; 47.5% women) were assessed with a mean of 6.8 and 13.2 months after discharge. The prevalence of post-COVID fatigue and dyspnea was 72.8% and 17.2% at 6 months and 45.4% and 13.6% at 12 months after hospital discharge, respectively. Patients exhibiting post-COVID fatigue at 6 or 12 months exhibited a lower hemoglobin level, higher lymphocyte count, and lower neutrophil and platelets counts (all, p < 0.05), whereas those exhibiting post-COVID dyspnea at 6 or 12 months had a lower platelet count and lower alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (all, p < 0.05) than those not developing post-COVID fatigue or dyspnea, respectively. The multivariate regression analyses revealed that a lower platelet count and lower LDH levels were associated but just explaining 4.5% of the variance, of suffering from post-COVID fatigue and dyspnea, respectively. CONCLUSION: Some serological biomarkers were slightly different in patients exhibiting post-COVID fatigue or dyspnea, but they could not explain the long-COVID problems in those patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
4.
Pain ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association between serological biomarkers at hospital admission with the development of long-term post-COVID pain symptoms in previously hospitalized coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. A cohort study including patients hospitalised because of COVID-19 in 1 urban hospital of Madrid (Spain) during the first wave of the outbreak was conducted. Hospitalisation data, clinical data, and 11 serological biomarkers were collected at hospital admission. Participants were scheduled for an individual telephone interview after hospital discharge for collecting data about post-COVID pain symptoms. A total of 412 patients (mean age: 62, SD: 15 years; 46.1% women) were assessed twice, at a mean of 6.8 and 13.2 months after discharge. The prevalence of post-COVID pain symptoms was 42.7% (n = 176) and 36.2% (n = 149) at 6.8 and 13.2 months after hospital discharge. Patients reporting post-COVID pain exhibited a greater number of COVID-19-associated symptoms at hospital admission, more medical comorbidities, higher lymphocyte count, and lower glucose and creatine kinase levels (all, P < 0.01) than those not reporting post-COVID pain. The multivariate analysis revealed that lower creatine kinase and glucose levels were significantly associated, but just explaining 6.9% of the variance of experiencing post-COVID pain. In conclusion, the association between serological biomarkers associated with COVID-19 severity at hospital admission and the development of post-COVID pain is small. Other factors, eg, higher number of COVID-19 onset symptoms (higher symptom load) could be more relevant for the development of post-COVID pain. Because inflammatory biomarkers were not directly analyzed, they may have stronger predictive strengths for the development of post-COVID pain symptoms.

5.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): e127-e132, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The most susceptible population group to critical and fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is older adults. In severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the host immune response is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiological effects of lung damage. Therefore, corticosteroid therapy could modulate inflammation-mediated pulmonary injury and thereby reduce progression to severe respiratory failure and death. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in older adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHOD: We reviewed the clinical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 75 years or older admitted to our hospital over a 3-month period (March 1-May 31, 2020). A total of 143 patients were included in the study cohort. From 2 April, 2020, in accordance with World Health Organization guidance on COVID-19, our hospital protocol added corticosteroid for COVID-19 treatment. We compared in-hospital mortality among patients with critical COVID-19 who received corticosteroids therapy and those who did not. RESULTS: In total, 88 patients (61.5%) were treated with corticosteroids, and 55 patients (38.4%) were not. Both groups were similar in baseline characteristics. The median age was 85 years (interquartile range: 82-89), and 61.5% (88/143) were male. In-hospital mortality was lower in the corticosteroid group (68.2%) compared with patients in the noncorticosteroid group (81.8%). Treatment with corticosteroids was an independent survival factor (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41-0.93; p = .006). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill older adults with COVID-19 pneumonia, the use of corticosteroid treatment resulted in lower mortality without severe adverse events.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(6): 1557-1569, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) may develop in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and may be associated with a worse outcome. The aim of this study is to describe AKI incidence during the first 45 days of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in Spain, its reversibility and the association with mortality. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective case-control study based on patients hospitalized between 1 March and 15 April 2020 with SARS-CoV-2 infection and AKI. Confirmed AKI cases were compared with stable kidney function patients for baseline characteristics, analytical data, treatment and renal outcome. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. RESULTS: AKI incidence was 17.22% among 3182 admitted COVID-19 patients and acute kidney disease (AKD) incidence was 6.82%. The most frequent causes of AKI were prerenal (68.8%) and sepsis (21.9%). Odds ratio (OR) for AKI was increased in patients with pre-existent hypertension [OR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.89] and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.33-3.42) and in those with respiratory distress (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.52-3.70). Low arterial pressure at admission increased the risk for Stage 3 AKI (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.50). Baseline kidney function was not recovered in 45.73% of overall AKI cases and in 52.75% of AKI patients with prior CKD. Mortality was 38.5% compared with 13.4% of the overall sample population. AKI increased mortality risk at any time of hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.93). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is frequent in COVID-19 patients and is associated with mortality, independently of acute respiratory distress syndrome. AKD was also frequent and merits adequate follow-up.

7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 691, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can course with respiratory and extrapulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory samples but also in blood, stool and urine. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulated host response to this virus. We studied whether viral RNAemia or viral RNA load in plasma is associated with severe COVID-19 and also to this dysregulated response. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with COVID-19 were recruited (50 outpatients, 100 hospitalized ward patients and 100 critically ill). Viral RNA detection and quantification in plasma was performed using droplet digital PCR, targeting the N1 and N2 regions of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein gene. The association between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma with severity was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Correlations between viral RNA load and biomarkers evidencing dysregulation of host response were evaluated by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The frequency of viral RNAemia was higher in the critically ill patients (78%) compared to ward patients (27%) and outpatients (2%) (p < 0.001). Critical patients had higher viral RNA loads in plasma than non-critically ill patients, with non-survivors showing the highest values. When outpatients and ward patients were compared, viral RNAemia did not show significant associations in the multivariate analysis. In contrast, when ward patients were compared with ICU patients, both viral RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma were associated with critical illness (OR [CI 95%], p): RNAemia (3.92 [1.183-12.968], 0.025), viral RNA load (N1) (1.962 [1.244-3.096], 0.004); viral RNA load (N2) (2.229 [1.382-3.595], 0.001). Viral RNA load in plasma correlated with higher levels of chemokines (CXCL10, CCL2), biomarkers indicative of a systemic inflammatory response (IL-6, CRP, ferritin), activation of NK cells (IL-15), endothelial dysfunction (VCAM-1, angiopoietin-2, ICAM-1), coagulation activation (D-Dimer and INR), tissue damage (LDH, GPT), neutrophil response (neutrophils counts, myeloperoxidase, GM-CSF) and immunodepression (PD-L1, IL-10, lymphopenia and monocytopenia). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and viral RNA load in plasma are associated with critical illness in COVID-19. Viral RNA load in plasma correlates with key signatures of dysregulated host responses, suggesting a major role of uncontrolled viral replication in the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral/analysis , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Chi-Square Distribution , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric
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